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TABLES, FIGURES & BIOGRAPHIES

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BiographiesFIGURESTABLESCh 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.1TABLES, FIGURES & BIOGRAPHIES FOR NEW CH 18 [OLD 14]BiographiesPAUL DIRAC (1902-1984, English). Dirac (on the left) walking with Heisenberg in the 1930’s. Dirac’s relativistic version of the Schrödinger equation predicted the existence of the positron (discovered a couple of years later by Anderson) and earned him the 1933 Nobel Prize, which heshared with Schrödinger. He was the author of a seminal book on quantum mechanics, first published in 1930.[XX SOURCE: AIP]01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.2HIDEKI YUKAWA (1907-1981, Japanese). In 1935 Yukawa predicted the existence of the particle now called the pion, arguing that the strong nuclear force must be “carried” by a pion just as the electromagnetic force is “carried” by the photon. In 1947 the pion was discovered, with almost exactly the mass predicted by Yukawa. For this prediction he wasawarded the 1949 Nobel Prize.[XX SOURCE: same a first edition, page 395]01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.3RICHARD FEYNMAN (1918-1988, US). Feyman was a colorful personality,who contributed to many areas of theoretical physics. He won the 1965 Nobel Prize for his part in developing the quantum theory of electromagnetism (particularly the Feynman diagram), but he was equally known for his beautiful expositions of physics. His several books are goldmines of physical insight.[XX:SOURCE: same as first edition, page 397]01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.4MURRAY GELL-MANN (born 1929, US). Gell-Mann got his PhD from MIT at22 and was a full professor at Cal Tech by 26. In 1961 he predicted the existence of the omega-minus particle, which was found in 1964 (see Fig. 18.11), and in 1964 he proposed the idea that all hadrons are made up of quarks. He won the Nobel Prize in 1969.[XX: SOURCE: same as first edition, page 409]01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.5FIGURESFIGURE 18.1 [= old 14.1 XX] (a) An early photograph of pair production in a cloud chamber. (b) A tracing of the same event showing the incident photon (which is invisible in the photograph). A magnetic field directed into the page caused the electron and positron to curve in opposite directions.FIGURE 18.2 [= old 14.2 XX] A Feynman diagram representing a process in which the electron on the left emits a photon, which is then absorbed by the electron on the right.01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.6FIGURE 18.3 [= old 14.3 XX] Three Feynman diagrams representing processes in which two nucleons exchange a pion. Two more possibilities, not shown, are that a proton and neutron can exchange a 0, and two neutrons can exchange a 0.01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.7FIGURE 18.4 [= old 14.4 XX] (a) Tracks of a cosmic-ray pion and its decay products in photographic emulsion. The pion decays into a muon and an invisible neutrino; the muon then decays into an electron and two invisible neutrinos. (b) A “star” formed when a  – is caught in an atomic orbit and absorbed in the nucleus; the energy released blows thenucleus apart into several charged fragments. 01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.8FIGURE 18.5 [= old 14.5 XX] (a) Photograph made in a hydrogen bubble chamber traversed by several negative pions. One  – has hit a stationary hydrogen nucleus and induced the reaction – + p  K+ +  –. (b) Tracing of the interesting tracks, including the paths of the neutral particles, which are invisible in the photograph. The  has decayed intoa neutron and  – after traveling a short distance; the K+ has decayed into a neutrino and  – shortly before leaving the picture. 01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.9FIGURE 18.6 [= old 14.6 XX] (a) Bubble-chamber photograph of the reaction  – + p  Ko + o. Neither of the neutral particles is visible, but their subsequent decays into two charged particles are easily seen. (b) Tracing of the same sequence, including the paths of the two neutral particles. 01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.10FIGURE 18.7 [= old 14.7 XX] (a) The reaction e + p  e + + followed by the decay +   + p as seen, for example, in a bubble chamber. The + decays too quickly to leave any track, and the observed process is indistinguishable from the single reaction e + p  e +  + p. (The photonwould, of course, leave no visible track, but could be detected in severalother ways.) (b) An imaginary enlargement by some 13 orders of magnitude shows the actual sequence of events (18.28).01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.11FIGURE 18.8 [= old 14.8 XX] Schematic plot of the number of events like that in Fig. 18.7(a) against the variable x defined in Eq. (18.33). Those events in which the outgoing  and proton came from decay of a + all have x = mc2 and cause the spike at that value. The parameter  is called the width of the + and is traditionally defined as the width of the spike at half its maximum height.FIGURE 18.9 [= old 14.9 XX] A plot similar to Fig. 18.8, but based on actual data for electron-proton collisions. The first spike corresponds to the + particle with mass 1232 MeV/c2; the other two spikes correspond to two other unstable particles, called N(l520) and N(l680).01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.12FIGURE 18.10 [= old 14.10 XX] A plot of mass against charge for five examples of the many hadron multiplets. Except with the nucleon doublet (n and p), the same letter is used for all members of each multiplet, with the different charges shown as superscripts. On this scale, the mass differences within each multiplet cannot be seen.01/14/19Ch 18, Bios, Figs, & Tables, final [= old Ch 14] BFT18.13FIGURE 18.11 [= old 14.11 XX] Photograph of the production of an  – baryon in a liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber. Many K– mesons entered the picture from below, and. one produced the  – in the reaction K+ p   – + K+ + K 0. The – traveled about an inch before decaying into a  – and  0. The neutral  0 is invisible, as are its decay products, , 0, and ;but all of these neutrals eventually reveal themselves, the photons by producing e+e– pairs and the 0 in the


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