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SKIDMORE HI 363 - Augustan Portraiture and Ideology

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Augustan Portraiture and IdeologySlide 2Livia, Fayoum, Egypt, after 14 CEJulius Caesar, 44 BCE (Turin)Alexander, Roman copy Octavian, 30 BCE of Lysippos’ original Actium typeAugustus’ evolving portraitureAugustus as Pontifex Maximus after 12 BCE What is the significance of this portrait?“I forced the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people” (RG 29.2)Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Galinsky argues that the Prima Porta draws upon Polykleitos’ 5th c. Doryphoros and Lysippos’ Hellenistic Alexander (here, both Roman copies from Pompeii). Why is this significant?Gaius Iulius Caesar (20 BCE-4 CE) British Museum, ca. 2-4 CESlide 14Horologium, Ara Pacis (top: 13-9 BCE) Mausoleum (28 BCE), Horologium, Ara Pacis (bottom)FER(IAE) EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) Q(UOD) E(O) D(IE) ARA PACIS AUG(USTAE) IN CAMP(O) MAR(TIO) CONSTITUTA EST NERONE ET VARO COS. (Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 12.24, in reference to July 14, 13 BCE) "Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was founded in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Nero and Varus." FERIAE EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) QUO[D EO] DIE ARA PACIS AUGUSTA[E IN CAMPO ] MARTIO DEDICATA [E]ST DRUSO ET CRISPINO C[OS]. (Inscriptiones Italiae 13.2.117, in reference to January 30, 9 BCE = Livia’s birthday) "Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was dedicated in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Drusus and Crispinus."Res Gestae 12 on the Ara Pacis Augustus as the auctor of paxAra Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCESlide 19Imperial Procession, Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCEProcessional Frieze: Augustus, Lictors, Marcus AgrippaMarcus Agrippa, Gaius(?), Livia, TiberiusAugustan narrativeMars, Romulus, Remus Penates, Aeneas, AscaniusMars (l.); She-wolf, Romulus & Remus (below, restored); Faustulus (r.)Left to right: Penates (ancestral spirits), Aeneas, Iulus/AscaniusSlide 27Roma personified (and restored) Why is her depiction significant here?Tellus / Venus / Italia / Pax / CeresHow do the decorative elements – acanthus leaves, tendrils, etc. – connect to the Augustan ideological program and enhance the viewer’s experience?What is the intended interplay among the processions, the four smaller panels, and the function of the Ara Pacis? How is the monument polysemiotic and multivalent?Augustus’ MausoleumReconstruction of MausoleumTomb markers of Marcellus and Octavia (Gaius Marcellus, son of Octavia, husband of Julia & son-in-law and nephew of Augustus, and Octavia, sister of Augustus)Slide 35Slide 36Slide 37Slide 38Augustan Portraiture and IdeologyThe Ara Pacis and ValentinoLivia, wifeJulia, daughterCleopatra, queenOctavia, sister“… Augustus was conflicted about this quartet and the part they played in his life and that of Rome and its empire” (Kleiner, CC 199).Why can Kleiner make this claim?Livia, Fayoum, Egypt, after 14 CEWhat is significant about this portrait – both in terms of its provenance and its stylistics?Julius Caesar, 44 BCE (Turin)What do these portraits tell us about Caesar’s attitude towards the public presentation of his own image?Alexander, Roman copy Octavian, 30 BCEof Lysippos’ original Actium typeWhy did Octavian choose Alexander as a model for his early portraiture?Augustus’ evolving portraitureHow did Augustus’ portraiture evolve?What challenges do art historians face in assigning portraits of Augustus to a particular age or time period? Before 44 BCE After 20 BCE 10-1 BCE After 10 BCEAugustus as Pontifex Maximus after 12 BCEWhat is the significance of this portrait?“I forced the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people” (RG 29.2)Augustus of Prima Porta(Livia’s villa), post-20 BCEWhat is the significance of these texts and images?King Phraates of Parthia, denarius, 19 BCE“On humbled knees Phraates accepted the law and rule of Caesar” (Hor. Epist. 1.12.27-29Reconstruction of coloring on Prima Porta Augustus“These standards I deposited in the innermost shrine of the Temple of Mars Ultor” (RG 29.2)“Parthian, you return the eagles and you surrender the bows that have been overcome: now you do not possess any more tokens of our disgrace” (Ovid Fasti 5.593-4)Details on the cuirass:•Central scene: Mars/Tiberius; she-wolf or army dog; Parthian •Deities: Aurora; Caelus/Sol/ Saturn; Venus; Apollo; Diana•Provinces: Hispania or Armenia; Gaul•Personfication: Tellus; Cybele (Phrygian/Trojan mother goddess)•Creatures: sphinxesWhat is the significance of these personficiations in the context of Augustan ideology?AuroraCaelus/Sol/SaturnApollo& lyreMars/TiberiusHispania/ArmeniaParthianGaulTellus with cornucopiaTympanum of Trojan Mother GoddessDiana& hindSphinxSphinxVenusWhat is the significance of the small figures at the feet of Augustus?What is the significance of Augustus’ pose and dress?Galinsky argues that the Prima Porta draws upon Polykleitos’ 5th c. Doryphoros and Lysippos’ Hellenistic Alexander (here, both Roman copies from Pompeii). Why is this significant?Gaius Iulius Caesar (20 BCE-4 CE)British Museum, ca. 2-4 CELucius Iulius Caesar (17 BCE-2 CE)Corinth Museum, after 4 CEWhat do these portraits reveal about Augustan propaganda?Horologium, Ara Pacis (top: 13-9 BCE)Mausoleum (28 BCE), Horologium, Ara Pacis (bottom)FER(IAE) EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) Q(UOD) E(O) D(IE) ARA PACIS AUG(USTAE) IN CAMP(O) MAR(TIO) CONSTITUTA EST NERONE ET VARO COS.(Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 12.24, in reference to July 14, 13 BCE)"Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was founded in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Nero and Varus." FERIAE EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) QUO[D EO] DIE ARA PACIS AUGUSTA[E IN CAMPO ] MARTIO DEDICATA [E]ST DRUSO ET CRISPINO C[OS].(Inscriptiones Italiae 13.2.117, in reference to January 30, 9 BCE = Livia’s birthday)"Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was dedicated in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Drusus and Crispinus."Res Gestae 12 on the Ara PacisAugustus as the auctor of pax“When Ireturned from Spain and Gaul, in the consulship of Tiberius Nero and Publius Quintilius, after successful operations in those provinces, the senate voted in honour of my return


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