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UW-Madison BOTANY 401 - Iridaceae - Iris Family

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3/25/10!1!Iridaceae - iris family!Iris virginica - Blue flag, iris!A family primarily of Mediterranean climate geophytes. Leaves are basal and equitant - folded and overlapping.!Iridaceae - iris family!Iris virginica - Blue flag, iris!CA 3 CO 3 A 3 G (3)!—!Tepals 6, the 3 inner (petals) forming the “flags or standards”!The 3 outer (sepals) forming the “falls”!Note the nectar guides for insects!The 3 stamens are positioned under the 3 petal-like styles!The gynoecium is inferior and forms a 3-parted capsule!Iridaceae - iris family!Iris versicolor - Blue flag!Iris pseudacorus - Yellow flag!Introduced and potentially invasive!3/25/10!2!Iridaceae - iris family!Iris lacustris!Dwarf lake iris!Endangered species restricted to fringe areas of northern Great Lakes; clonal growth!Iridaceae - iris family!Sisyrinchium campestre - blue-eyed grass! Sisyrinchium found in drier areas than Iris!Iridaceae - iris family!Crocus vernalis - Crocus!cultivated!Crocuses are all introduced but are some of the earliest flowering plants in the spring. The dried styles of C. sativus yields the expensive saffron.!Hypoxidaceae - star grass family!Hypoxis hirsuta - Yellow star grass!CA 3 CO 3 A 3+3 G (3)!—!Family has been placed in Liliaceae or Amaryllidaceae but is now known to be near Iridaceae!3/25/10!3!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Orchids are mycotrophic (= fungi dependent) lilioids; some are mycotrophic parasites !Cypripedium acaule!Stemless lady-slipper!Corallorhiza striata!Striped coral root!The family is diverse with about 800 genera and over 19,000 species, mainly of the tropics!Main features of the family:! Pollen masses or pollinia! Specialized floral structure and pollination biology! Reduced stamen number! Many, minute, dust-like seeds in capsules!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Cypripedium acaule - stemless lady’s-slipper!CA 3 COZ 2+1 A 3,2,1 G (3)!—!The lower petal is elaborated into the labellum - the landing platform!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Cypripedium acaule - stemless lady’s-slipper!The lower petal is elaborated into the labellum - the landing platform!Lady’s-slippers have two functional stamens with pollen masses!—!CA 3 COZ 2+1 A 3,2,1 G (3)!—!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Other lady’s-slippers . . .!Cypripedium arietinum!Ram’s-head lady’s-slipper!threatened!Cypripedium calceolus!Yellow lady’s-slipper!3/25/10!4!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Cypripedium reginae!showy lady’s-slipper!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Cypripedium candidum!white lady’s-slipper!Threatened, fen or calcareous soils!Orchidaceae - orchid family!All our other orchids have only 1 functional stamen with one or two pollinia!The stamen is situated on a column formed by fusion with the top of the inferior gynoecium!Orchidaceae - orchid family!All our other orchids have only 1 functional stamen with one or two pollinia!The stamen is situated on a column formed by fusion with the top of the inferior gynoecium!labellum!Other floral parts . . .!3/25/10!5!Orchidaceae - orchid family!All our other orchids have only 1 functional stamen with one or two pollinia!The stamen is situated on a column formed by fusion with the top of the inferior gynoecium!labellum! Other petals!Other floral parts . . .!Orchidaceae - orchid family!All our other orchids have only 1 functional stamen with one or two pollinia!The stamen is situated on a column formed by fusion with the top of the inferior gynoecium!labellum! sepals (one behind)!Other petals!Other floral parts . . .!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Aplectrum hyemale!Putty root, Adam and eve!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Arethusa bulbosa - Dragon’s mouth![Special concern]!Calypso bulbosa - calypso orchid ![threatened]!3/25/10!6!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Calopogon tuberosus - grass pink: note the labellum on top!!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Goodyera pubescens!Rattlesnake plantain!Goodyera tesselata!Rattlesnake plantain!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Corallorhiza trifida - Early coral root! Corallorhiza striata - Striped coral root!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Galearis spectabilis - showy orchid! Malaxis monophylla - adder’s mouth!3/25/10!7!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Platanthera leucophaea!Prairie fringed orchid!State endangered,!Federally threatened!Orchidaceae - orchid family!Pogonia ophioglossoides - snake mouth! Spiranthes cernua - nodding ladies’-tresses!Dioscoreaceae - yam family!Dioscorea villosa - wild yam!Small family, mostly of the tropics, with viney stems and net-veined leaves. Fruits are 3-winged.!Source of edible yam; sources of steroids, cortisones, first oral contraceptives (diosgenin, progesterone)!Commelinid Monocots!Tradescantia ohiensis - spiderwort!The last group of monocots that start with spiderworts with showy flowers but no nectar and ends with grasses and sedges with reduced florets for wind pollination!The group shows trends in reduced flowers, bracted inflorescences, loss of perianth, and shift to wind pollination!Carex pensylvanica - Pennsylvania sedge!3/25/10!8!Commelinaceae - spiderwort family!Tradescantia ohiensis - spiderwort!Family of small herbs with succulent stems, stems jointed; leaves sheathing. Family does not produce nectar, but showy flowers for insect pollen gathering.!Commelinaceae - spiderwort family!Tradescantia ohiensis - spiderwort!CA 3 CO 3 A 6 G (3)!Commelina communis - day flower!Inflorescence often bracted!Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic!Commelinaceae - spiderwort family!Tradescantia bracteata!Bracted spiderwort!Tradescantia occidentalis!Prairie spiderwort!Commelinaceae - spiderwort family!Commelina communis!Common dayflower!Introduced from Asia!Commelina erecta - Erect dayflower!Special concern native of cliffs of Driftless Region!3/25/10!9!Pontederiaceae - pickerel weed family!Aquatic family of emergents or floaters. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia) from tropical America is invasive species in subtropical areas of the world. !Eichhornia crassipes!Water hyacinth!Invading Florida!Pontederiaceae - pickerel weed family!Pontederia cordata - Pickerel weed!Pickerel weed has glossy heart-shaped leaves, superficially like Sagittaria but without net venation. Flowers are in congested showy purple inflorescences.!Pontederiaceae - pickerel weed family!Pontederia cordata - Pickerel weed!Flowers are showy, insect pollinated, often with trimorphic heterostyly!Pontederia has somewhat fused perianth!Pontederiaceae - pickerel weed family!Heteranthera dubia - Water star grass!(=


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