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CALVIN ENGR 315 - Introduction to Control Systems

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Slide 33Slide 34Slide 35Slide 36Slide 37Slide 38Slide 39Slide 40Slide 41IllustrationsIn this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system synthesis. The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to meet the design specifications. Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems ObjectivesIllustrationsIntroductionSystem – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response.Process – The device, plant, or system under control. The input and output relationship represents the cause-and-effect relationship of the process.IllustrationsIntroductionMultivariable Control SystemOpen-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired response.Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response.IllustrationsHistoryWatt’s Flyball Governor(18th century)Greece (BC) – Float regulator mechanismHolland (16th Century)– Temperature regulatorIllustrationsHistoryWater-level float regulatorIllustrationsHistoryIllustrationsHistory18th Century James Watt’s centrifugal governor for the speed control of a steam engine.1920s Minorsky worked on automatic controllers for steering ships.1930s Nyquist developed a method for analyzing the stability of controlled systems1940s Frequency response methods made it possible to design linear closed-loop control systems1950s Root-locus method due to Evans was fully developed1960s State space methods, optimal control, adaptive control and1980s Learning controls are begun to investigated and developed.Present and on-going research fields. Recent application of modern control theory includes such non-engineering systems such as biological, biomedical, economic and socio-economic systems???????????????????????????????????Illustrations(a) Automobile steering control system.(b) The driver uses the difference between the actual and the desired direction of travelto generate a controlled adjustment of the steering wheel.(c) Typical direction-of-travel response.Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsExamples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrationsThe Future of Control SystemsIllustrationsThe Future of Control SystemsIllustrationsControl System DesignIllustrationsIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsELECTRIC SHIP CONCEPTShipServicePowerMain PowerDistributionPropulsionMotorMotorDriveGeneratorPrimeMoverPowerConversionModuleElectric DriveReduce # of Prime MoversFuel savingsReduced maintenanceTechnology InsertionWarfighting CapabilitiesVisionVisionIntegratedIntegratedPowerPowerSystemSystemIntegratedIntegratedPowerPowerSystemSystemAllAllElectricElectricShipShipAllAllElectricElectricShipShipElectricallyElectricallyReconfigurableReconfigurableShipShipElectricallyElectricallyReconfigurableReconfigurableShipShipReduced manningAutomationEliminate auxiliary systems (steam, hydraulics, compressed air)Increasing Affordability and Military CapabilityIncreasing Affordability and Military CapabilityDesign ExampleIllustrationsCVN(X) FUTURE AIRCRAFT CARRIERDesign ExampleIllustrationsDesign ExampleEMALSIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsIllustrationsIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsDesign ExampleIllustrationsSequential Design ExampleIllustrationsIllustrationsSequential Design ExampleIllustrationsIllustrationsIllustrationsMistakesChallengerTacoma BridgeIllustrationsReferences, and Resourceshttp://www.ieeecss.org/siteindex/SITEindex.htmlhttp://www-control.eng.cam.ac.uk/extras/Virtual_Library/Control_VL.htmlIllustrationsExercises and ProblemsIllustrationsExercises and


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