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Palomar HIST 102 - Andrew Johnson, Plan of Reconstruction (1865)

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Andrew Johnson, Plan of Reconstruction (1865)As the Civil War came to an end, Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson, moved quickly to implement hisplan for Reconstruction, which differed little from Lincoln's plan (see text pp. 458–459). Johnson acted largely on his own, without much consultation with Congress. In particular, he ignored Congress's demand for a harsherpolicy toward the former Confederate states.On May 29, 1865, President Johnson set forth his plan in two presidential proclamations. In the first he promised amnesty to all rebels who would swear an oath of future loyalty, except for certain high-ranking officials and officers of the Confederacy, who had to petition for a presidential pardon.In the second proclamation, which appears below, Johnson announced the creation of a provisional government for North Carolina. After appointing William W. Holden, a North Carolina Unionist who had opposed secession, as the provisional governor, Johnson described the means by which that state could be restored to the Union. Johnson intended this plan to serve as a model for the other seceded states, hoping that allcould be restored before Congress reconvened in December.Johnson's approach to Reconstruction was very different from that proposed by the Wade-Davis Bill (seetext p. 458), which stipulated that more than 50 percent of the voters who were qualified in 1860 in each southern state had to be able to prove their past loyalty and swear future loyalty to the Union. Johnson and Congress also differed about allowing former Confederate leaders to participate in Reconstruction and in government. Presidents Lincoln and Johnson envisioned temporary disqualification; Congress favored permanent exclusion.Source: James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1896–1899), 6:312–313.Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; andWhereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; andWhereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of the United States against the properlyconstituted authorities of the Government . . . andWhereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the obligations of the United States to the people of North Carolina in securing them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby appoint William W. Holden provisional governor of the State of NorthCarolina, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period, to prescribe such rules and regulations as maybe necessary and proper for convening a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that portion of the people of said State who are loyal to the United States, and no others, for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution thereof, and with authority to exercise within the limits of said State all the powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the State of North Carolina to restore said State to its constitutional relations to the Federal Government and to present such a republican form of State government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of the United States therefor and its people to protection by the United States against 1Andrew Johnson, Plan of Reconstruction (1865)invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence: Provided, That in any election that may be hereafter held for choosing delegates to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall be qualified as an elector or shall be eligible as a member of such convention unless he shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath of amnesty as set forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, a.d. 1865, and is a voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and laws of the State of North Carolina in force immediately before the 20th day of May, a.d. 1861, the date of the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and the eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and laws of the State—a power the people of the several States composing the Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the Government to the present time.And I do hereby direct —. . . That the military commander of the department and all officers and persons in the military and naval serviceaid and assist the said provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State government as herein authorized.Document questions:- Answer the following questions for discussion in class on the day specified by the syllabus. - Be sure to note where the information to answer the question is located in the document (i.e., Highlighting or notes in the margin) but, DO NOT copy and paste parts of the document for your answer. (This is plagiarism) - Answer the questions in your own words. You may hand write or word process your answers.1. What type of document is this? (Primary/Secondary and what IS it?) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. What is the bias of this Author, as it relates to this topic? What might account for this


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