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UMD HIST 282 - Hasmonaean Revolt and Dynasty, Herodian Era

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1Hasmonaean Revolt andDynasty, Herodian EraFrom last time: Hasmonaean Dynasty, 152–63 BCEFor today “The Coming of Rome,” 63 BCE From the Hamonaeans to Herod,63–4 BCE Herod to the Revolt against Rome,4 BCE–66 CEOctober 9, 2006Hasmonaean Dynasty, 152–63 BCE Establishment of the Dynasty (163–142) Geographical Exansion “Judaizing” PolliciesEstablishment of dynasty Eclipse of Hasmonaeans after rededication ofTemple (164–152 BCE)) Menelaus HP until 163 BCE (after reded.) Alcimus HP 161-159 BCE (an enemy in 1Macc) Rise of Hasmonaean dominance (152 BCE–): Seleucid dynastic and inter-dynasty weakness Hasmonaeans (te-)established by Seleucids Jonathan (bro) after Judah (HP, 152, by Alexander Balas) Simon (bro) (HP 142, Demetrius II) Following Hasmonaeans are descendants of Simon Peak of power, geographical expansion 103-76 BCE(Alexander Jannaeus = Yannai)2Geographical Expansion,“Judaizing” policies? Geographical expansion (map) “Judaizing” policies? Combine: Imposition of Jewish practice on subject peoples And alliance building with anti-Hellenizing peoples In Galilee (N) and Idumaea (S), seems to havestuckHasmonaean Expansion 152-74 BCE“The Coming of Rome,” 63 BCE Rome: growth as international power from 3rd C.BCE. Intervention eastern Mediterranean from ca 200BCE Gn. Pompeius, and the first military intervention inJudaea 63 BCE Pompey, already in Syria, invited by competingHasmonaean factions for support Supporting Hyrcanus, Pompey besieges Temple, entersTemple 63 BCE–70 CE series of “experiments” with how torule JudaeaNB: Throughout Roman East: transition, clientkingdom to province3Hamonaeans to Herod,63–4 BCE 66 BCE, succession conflict between Hyrcanus andAristobulus, sons of Jannaeus 63 Pompey intervenes in support of Hyrcanus Judaea, reduced esp. by Greek city territorie,s remainsunder Hasmonaean rule Antipater & son Herod (Idumaeans) supporters of Herod 41 Parthian invasion Hyrcanus taken captive Herod promised kingship by M. Antony/Rom. Senate 37–4 BCE, Herod rules an expanded JudaeaHerod to the Revolt againstRome, 4 BCE–66 CE 4 BCE, death of Herod, kingdom divided among threesons 6 CE (deposition of Archelaus, son of Herod) to 41,combination of direct Roman rule and Herodian clientkings. 41–44 Agrippa I (grandson of Herod) 44–66 Direct Roman rule (exception in Golan and W.Galilee) Problems: Corrupt and/or incompetent governors Religious and political hostility to Rome Prophetic and messianic activity (e.g., J. Baptist; Jesus)Herod’s Building Projects: Masada and Herodium4Herod’s Building Projects: The Temple CompoundHerod’s Building Projects: Caesarea, Temple of Roma and


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