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Developmental Psychology Lecture 611/31/20081Emotion Young-Browne et al. (1977) tested 3-mo-olds’ discrimination1/31/20082Emotions (9-month-olds)Can infants discriminate vocal expressionsWalker-Andrews & Grolnick (1983)Habituated to a slide of a facial expression paired with a vocal expressionAt test, changed vocal expressionDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 621/31/20083Emotional Regulationz The process of initiating, inhibiting, and modulating internal feeling states– and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors1/31/20084Emotion RegulationNear the end of the first year, infants use information about others’ emotional expressions to regulate their behaviorKlinnert (1987) studied 12-month-olds’ behavior in relation to mothers’expressionsDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 631/31/20085Emotion RegulationMothers use infants’ social referencing to help shape emotional reactionsWhen infants encounter a new event and exhibit surprise but are not sure how to respond, parents may smile at them1/31/20086Emotion RegulationEarly in infancy, interactions are face-to-face and patterns develop:Interactional synchrony between mother and infantOnce established, they then get involved in turn-taking (answering each other’s responses)In fact, if mother fails to respond to an infant response, the infant shows distressDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 641/31/20087Emotional IntelligenceThe ability to monitor one’s own, and others’feelings and emotions-to discriminate amongst them-use this information to guide one’s thinking and actionEmotional intelligence can predict the success of social interactions and interpersonal relationships1/31/20088Measuring Emotional Intelligencez There are two broad views:– Emotional Intelligence as acquired ability (e.g., Mayer & Salovey, 2000)– Emotional Intelligence as both ability and traits (e.g. Bar-On, 1997; Goleman, 1995)Developmental Psychology Lecture 651/31/20089Emotional Intelligence (Mayor-Salovey Model 1993)DevelopingAwarenessHandling RelationshipsReading EmotionsManagingEmotionsEmotional Intelligence1/31/200810Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995)RelationshipsSensitivityAbility to activate emotionsManage one’s emotional statesIdentify one’s emotional statesDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 661/31/200811Chronology of Emotional DevelopmentPeriod Emotional development 1-12 months Expresses interest, distress, fear/anxiety and anger 12-24 months Uses words to describe emotions, Regulates emotions, displays guilt, shame and envy 36-48 months Understands cause and effect of emotions, Can use calculated tantrums and emotional outbursts 1/31/200812Social-Emotional Growth Chart, Greenspan (2004)Slower ProgressQuicker ProgressDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 671/31/200813Self-Conscious Emotionsz At the age of about 2 years children become aware of certain emotions– e.g., guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment (and the links these emotions have to other people’s reactions)z Self-conscious emotions can influence self-esteem1/31/200814Gender differencesz Females are generally more expressive and more sensitive to other people and their emotions than men (Bukatko & Daehler, 2001)z Girls tend to show more positive emotions than boysz Socially girls are encouraged to smile more than boysz Females tend to internalize emotions while males externalizeDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 681/31/200815TemperamentBasic personality traitsFussy, mellow, calm, happyInfants’ behavioral styleStrong genetic componentIdentical twins are more alike than fraternal twins on traits such as irritability, fear in the visual cliff, etc.1/31/200816TemperamentAre personality traits, temperament, stable with age?Some traits, in particular negative ones (e.g. fear), attention span, reaction to novelty, and activity level, seem to be very stableBeyond this, it is not clear whether stability or lack of it is due to genetics or environmentNot clear whether traits are evident in the fetus - evidence is contradictoryDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 691/31/200817Individual differences in emotional developmentTemperament Development The easy child -Adapts well to people and novel situations -Usually in positive mood The difficult child -Often in negative mood -Intense reactions to people and situations Slow-to-warm up child -Tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar situations -Will get involved when assured (Chess & Thomas, 1977; Thomas & Chess, 1991)1/31/200818TemperamentDifficult babies are found to have more behavioral problems as they get olderBut not necessarily in adulthoodPattern may reflect parental styleDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 6101/31/200819Definition of AttachmentAn enduring emotional tie to a special person, characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness, especially during times of stress. 1/31/200820Attachment: DeterminantsInfant’s TemperamentEasy – Secure Attachment?Difficult – Insecure Attachment?Maternal ResponsivenessShow interactional synchrony and turn-takingDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 6111/31/200821Parental StyleTwo componentsParental warmth - support, affection vs. rejection, shameParental control - discipline and regulation vs. unsupervised1/31/200822Parental StyleAuthoritative - high in warmth & controlPredictable environmentHas the most positive effectsChildren tend to be academically successful, self-confident, & independentAuthoritarian - low on warmth, high in controlParents are controlling & demanding, by threats and punishment Children are aggressive, have conduct problemsDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 6121/31/200823Parental StylePermissive - high in warmth, low in controlNo structure or predictability to environment, & few limits on behaviorsChildren are impulsive, immature, & behaviorally out of controlIndifferent - low on warmth & controlFew limits, little attention and support Children are disobedient and demanding, and do not participate in social interactions1/31/200824Roots of Attachment Theory• John Bowlby applied ethology to infants• Influenced by Konrad Lorenz• Infant’s innate behaviors are evolved responses that promote survivalDevelopmental Psychology Lecture 6131/31/200825Importance of Attachment• Implications for infant's sense of security • Affects internal working model• Freud, Erikson, Behaviorists described its impact on development1/31/200826Attachment in Behaviorism?(Harlow & Zimmerman, 1959)Developmental Psychology Lecture


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