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LECTURE NOTES

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Design Requirements for Ambient Display that Supports Sustainable Lifestyle Tanyoung Kim, Hwajung Hong, Brian Magerko School of Literature, Communication, and Culture Georgia Institute of Technology 686 Cherry St., Atlanta, GA, 30332 U.S.A. {tanykim, hhong31, magerko}@gatech.edu ABSTRACT People are ready to change themselves to adopt more eco-friendly habits such as conserving electricity when they are aware of the possible problems of their lifestyle. In this sense, ambient display, which users experience occasionally without its interfering with their primary tasks, is well suited to provide the feedback of their personal activities in a more subtle manner than direct information presentation. We present the results of user studies with two ambient displays in different visualization styles. Participants showed diverse usage behaviors of ambient displays according to their motivational level of sustainable lifestyle. In addition, iconic metaphor of eco-visualization can trigger more emotional attachment while indexical representation helps retrospective functions. Finally, we suggest design requirements for ambient displays that support different stages of persuasion from raising awareness to motivating to change behaviors and to maintaining desired habits. Author Keywords Sustainable design, persuasive technology, ambient display, behavior change, eco-visualization ACM Classification Keywords H5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION Persuasive Technology is technology that is designed to change the attitudes or behaviors of its users through social influence without coercion [12]. In the past few years, a number of HCI research have investigated how to motivate people through persuasive technology, especially in the domains that are widely referred to sustainable design [8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27]. However, there are several neglected aspects in designing persuasive systems—individuals’ different stages toward sustainable lifestyle and the effective visualization styles as feedback. Behavior change happens along the several stages including the awareness of surrounding problems, the action of the desired behavior, and the maintenance of the change [7]. Procedural change needs different techniques at each stage for the design of persuasive media. A current research suggests motivational framework that provides different goals and recommendations to people according to their reached stage [15]. However, many of interactive systems have less studied the appropriate media, design strategy and user interaction at the stage that the system is targeting. Popular forms of persuasive media include mobile displays [13], website [26], and physical objects [14, 19]. No matter what the destinations of persuasive media are, HCI researchers have empathized persuasive feedback through the visualization of sensed data. For the specific domain of sustainable living, many have suggested eco-visualization as a means of persuasion [17, 27]. However, they have not yet proven what are suitable forms (e.g., text, diagrams, pictures) for the eco-visualization of sensed data. The empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of persuasion, especially comparative studies of different visualization techniques, are rare. This paper attempts to address the previously neglected topics in sustainable design. Focusing on the early stages of persuasion that requires awareness of the surrounding problems, we assume that ambient display can serve as a suitable form of persuasive technology that senses activities of users and provides real-time feedback without causing interference with their primary tasks. To support this assumption, we designed two ambient display systems, and compare of effects of different visualizations on multi-stage persuasion. Our investigation attempts to answer to the following two research questions: R1: How do people experience ambient displays as a persuasive medium differently according to their motivational level and the consciousness of their problematic behaviors? R2: How do the representation styles of eco-visualization affect users’ perception, awareness of their own activities, and their potential behavior change? Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. DIS 2010, August 16-20, 2010, Aarhus Denmark. Copyright © 2010 ACM ISBN 978-1-4503-0103-9, 2010/08 - $10.00. 103First, we explore the background of persuasive ambient display: theories and suggestions by HCI researchers and behavioral psychologists, and the potential of ambient display for persuasive usages. Next, we describe the empirical research with the Mac OSX widgets Coralog and Timelog (Figure 1 and 2): system descriptions, methods, and the results of a semi-longitudinal user study of with fifty two participants for two weeks. Finally, we suggest design requirements for the ambient display embedding eco-visualization that supports sustainable lifestyle. PERSUASIVE AMBIENT DISPLAY We review current sustainable design practices and theories of behavior change from psychology and the definition and design dimensions of ambient information display [30]. Connecting the two themes, we argue that the characteristics of ambient displays are suitable for persuasive design. Early Stages Toward Sustainable Lifestyle Current Suggestions for Sustainable Design For the past few years, the HCI and interaction design has enormously devoted to the research of sustainability. Diverse research foci exist including the general notion of sustainable design [1], a macro-study on the context of green lifestyle [35], implementation of a working system [13], a theory-driven design strategies [4], and a suggestion of a new perspective from arts [9]. Woodruff et al. proposed personal choices


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