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MSU ECE 405 - chap6

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CHAPTER 6. WELDED CONNECTIONS6.1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS6.2 Design of Welded ConnectionsStep III. Tension strength of the memberCE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma CHAPTER 6. WELDED CONNECTIONS 6.1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS • Structural welding is a process by which the parts that are to be connected are heated and fused, with supplementary molten metal at the joint. • A relatively small depth of material will become molten, and upon cooling, the structural steel and weld metal will act as one continuous part where they are joined. Fillet weldFillet weldFillet weldFillet weldFillet weldFillet weld 1CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma • The additional metal is deposited from a special electrode, which is part of the electric circuit that includes the connected part. − In the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process, current arcs across a gap between the electrode and the base metal, heating the connected parts and depositing part of the electrode into the molten base metal. − A special coating on the electrode vaporizes and forms a protective gaseous shield, preventing the molten weld metal from oxidizing before it solidifies. − The electrode is moved across the joint, and a weld bead is deposited, its size depending on the rate of travel of the electrode. − As the weld cools, impurities rise to the surface, forming a coating called slag that must be removed before the member is painted or another pass is made with the electrode. − Shielded metal arc welding is usually done manually and is the process universally used for field welds. • For shop welding, an automatic or semi automatic process is usually used. Foremost among these is the submerged arc welding (SAW), • In this process, the end of the electrode and the arc are submerged in a granular flux that melts and forms a gaseous shield. There is more penetration into the base metal than with shielded metal arc welding, and higher strength results. • Other commonly used processes for shop welding are gas shielded metal arc, flux cored arc, and electro-slag welding. • Quality control of welded connections is particularly difficult, because defects below the surface, or even minor flaws at the surface, will escape visual detection. Welders must be 2CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma properly certified, and for critical work, special inspection techniques such as radiography or ultrasonic testing must be used. • The two most common types of welds are the fillet weld and the groove weld. Fillet weld examples: lap joint – fillet welds placed in the corner formed by two plates Tee joint – fillet welds placed at the intersection of two plates. • Groove welds – deposited in a gap or groove between two parts to be connected e.g., butt, tee, and corner joints with beveled (prepared) edges • Partial penetration groove welds can be made from one or both sides with or without edge preparation. 6.2 Design of Welded Connections  Fillet welds are most common and used in all structures.  Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments  A fillet weld can be loaded in any direction in shear, compression, or tension. However, it always fails in shear. 3CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma  The shear failure of the fillet weld occurs along a plane through the throat of the weld, as shown in the Figure below. aaThroat = a x cos45o= 0.707 aaaThroat = a x cos45o= 0.707 a Failure PlaneL  Shear stress in fillet weld of length L subjected to load P = fv = wLa707.0P  If the ultimate shear strength of the weld = fw Rn = wwLa707.0f ×××φ Rn = i.e., φ factor = 0.75 wwLa707.0f75.0 ×××× fw = shear strength of the weld metal is a function of the electrode used in the SMAW process. - The tensile strength of the weld electrode can be 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120 ksi. - The corresponding electrodes are specified using the nomenclature E60XX, E70XX, E80XX, and so on. This is the standard terminology for weld electrodes.  The strength of the electrode should match the strength of the base metal. - If yield stress (σy) of the base metal is ≤ 60 - 65 ksi, use E70XX electrode. - If yield stress (σy) of the base metal is ≥ 60 - 65 ksi, use E80XX electrode.  E70XX is the most popular electrode used for fillet welds made by the SMAW method.  Table J2.5 in the AISC Specifications gives the weld design strength fw = 0.60 FEXX 4CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma For E70XX, φ fw = 0.75 x 0.60 x 70 = 31.5 ksi  Additionally, the shear strength of the base metal must also be considered: φ Rn = 0.9 x 0.6 Fy x area of base metal subjected to shear where, Fy is the yield strength of the base metal.  For example: TElevationPlanTElevationPlan Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal = 0.75 x 0.707 x a x Lw x fw = 0.9 x 0.6 x Fy x t x Lw Smaller governs the strength of the weld  Always check weld metal and base metal strength. Smaller value governs. In most cases, the weld metal strength will govern.  In weld design problems it is advantageous to work with strength per unit length of the weld or base metal. 6.2.1 Limitations on weld dimensions (See AISC Spec. J2.2b on page 16.1-54 of manual)  Minimum size (amin) - function of the thickness of the thickest connected plate - given in Table J2.4 of the AISC specifications  Maximum size (amax) 5CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma - function of the thickness of the thinnest connected plate: - for plates with thickness ≤ 0.25 in., amax = 0.25 in. - for plates with thickness ≥ 0.25 in., amax = t - 1/16 in.  Minimum length (Lw) - length (Lw) ≥ 4 a otherwise, aeff = Lw / 4 - Read J2.2 b - Intermittent fillet welds: Lw-min = 4 a and 1.5 in.  Maximum effective length - read AISC J2.2b - If weld length Lw < 100 a, then effective weld length (Lw-eff) = Lw - If Lw < 300 a, then effective weld length (Lw-eff) = Lw (1.2 – 0.002 Lw/a) - If Lw > 300 a, the effective weld length (Lw-eff) = 0.6 Lw  Weld Terminations - read AISC J2.2b - Lap joint – fillet welds terminate at a distance > a from edge. - Weld returns around corners must be > 2 a 6CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma Example 6.1. Determine the design strength of the tension member and connection system shown


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