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PCC CH 100 - Standards for Measurement

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Standards for Measurement Chapter 2Chapter Outline2.1 Scientific NotationSlide 46.25 x 10-21Scientific NotationWrite 6419 in scientific notation.Write 0.000654 in scientific notation.2.2 Measurement and UncertaintyMeasurementsForm of a MeasurementSignificant FiguresSlide 13Reading a ThermometerSlide 15Slide 16Slide 17Exact Numbers2.3 Significant FiguresSlide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Rounding Off NumbersSlide 34Rules for Rounding OffSlide 36Slide 372.4 Significant Figures in CalculationsThe results of a calculation based on measurements cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement.Multiplication or DivisionIn multiplication or division, the answer must contain the same number of significant figures as in the measurement that has the least number of significant figures.Slide 42Addition or SubtractionThe results of an addition or a subtraction must be expressed to the same precision as the least precise measurement.The result must be rounded to the same number of decimal places as the value with the fewest decimal places.Slide 46Slide 472.5 The Metric SystemSlide 49International System’s Standard Units of MeasurementCommon Prefixes and Numerical Values for SI UnitsPrefixes and Numerical Values for SI UnitsMeasurement of LengthSlide 54Slide 55Metric Units of Length2.6 Problem SolvingDimensional AnalysisBasic StepsSlide 60Slide 61Length ConversionHow many millimeters are there in 2.5 meters?The conversion factor takes a fractional form.Slide 65Slide 66Slide 67Slide 68Convert 3.7 x 103 cm to micrometers.Slide 702.7 Measuring Mass and VolumeMassSlide 73Metric Units of massConvert 45 decigrams to grams.An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24 g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24 g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?VolumeSlide 79Slide 80Convert 4.61 x 102 microliters to milliliters.Slide 822.8 Measurement of TemperatureHeatTemperatureTemperature MeasurementDegree SymbolsTo convert between the scales, use the following relationships:Slide 89It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian plains to reach –60oF and below during the winter. What is this temperature in oC and K?It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian planes to reach –60oF and below during the winter. What is this temperature in oC and K?2.9 DensitySlide 93Slide 94Slide 95Slide 96Slide 97ExamplesSlide 99A graduated cylinder is filled to the 35.0 mL mark with water. A copper nugget weighing 98.1 grams is immersed into the cylinder and the water level rises to the 46.0 mL. What is the volume of the copper nugget? What is the density of copper?The density of ether is 0.714 g/mL. What is the mass of 25.0 milliliters of ether?Slide 102The density of oxygen at 0oC is 1.429 g/L. What is the volume of 32.00 grams of oxygen at this temperature?Slide 104Slide 1051Standards for Measurement Chapter 2 Standards for Measurement Chapter 2 Hein and Arena Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College© John Wiley and Sons, IncVersion 2.012th Edition2 Chapter Outline2.1 Scientific Notation2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty2.6 Problem Solving 2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations2.5 The Metric System2.8 Measurement of Temperature2.9 Density2.3 Significant Figures2.7 Measuring Mass and Volume32.12.1Scientific Notation2.12.1Scientific Notation4 6022000000000000000000000.00000000000000000000625•Very large and very small numbers like these are awkward and difficult to work with.•Very large and very small numbers are often encountered in science.5602200000000000000000000A method for representing these numbers in a simpler form is called scientific notation.0.000000000000000000006256.022 x 10236.25 x 10-216Scientific Notation•Move the decimal point in the original number so that it is located after the first nonzero digit.•Follow the new number by a multiplication sign and 10 with an exponent (po wer).•The exponent is equal to the number of places that the decimal point was shifted.7Write 6419 in scientific notation.64196419.641.9x10164.19x1026.419 x 103decimal after first nonzero digitpower of 108Write 0.000654 in scientific notation.0.0006540.00654 x 10-10.0654 x 10-20.654 x 10-3 6.54 x 10-4decimal after first nonzero digitpower of 1092.22.2Measurementand Uncertainty2.22.2Measurementand Uncertainty10Measurements•Experiments are performed.•Measurements are made.11Form of a Measurement70.0 kilograms = 154 poundsnumerical valueunit12Significant Figures•The number of digits that are known plus one estimated digit are considered significant in a measured quantityestimated5.16143known13uncertain6.06320Significant Figures•The number of digits that are known plus one estimated digit are considered significant in a measured quantitycertain14Reading a ThermometerReading a Thermometer15Temperature is estimated to be 21.2oC. The last 2 is uncertain.The temperature 21.2oC is expressed to 3 significant figures.16Temperature is estimated to be 22.0oC. The last 0 is uncertain.The temperature 22.0oC is expressed to 3 significant figures.17Temperature is estimated to be 22.11oC. The last 1 is uncertain.The temperature 22.11oC is expressed to 4 significant figures.1812 inches = 1 foot100 centimeters = 1 meter•Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures.•Exact numbers occur in simple counting operationsExact Numbers• Defined numbers are exact.12345192.32.3Significant Figures2.32.3Significant Figures20461All nonzero numbers are significant.Significant Figures21461All nonzero numbers are significant.Significant Figures22461All nonzero numbers are significant.Significant Figures234613 Significant FiguresAll nonzero numbers are significant.Significant Figures244013 Significant FiguresA zero is significant when it is between nonzero digits.Significant Figures25A zero is significant when it is between nonzero digits.5 Significant Figures600.39Significant Figures263 Significant Figures30.9A zero is significant when it is between nonzero digits.Significant Figures27A zero is significant at the end of a number that includes a decimal point.5 Significant Figures000.55Significant Figures28A zero is significant at the end of a number that includes a decimal point.5 Significant Figures0391.2Significant Figures29A zero is not significant when it is before the first nonzero digit. 1 Significant Figure600.0Significant Figures30A zero is not significant


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