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a dimming. This increase has been found tobe significant at the 99% level of confidence.The satellite-based record of surface solarfluxes from 1983 until 1992 does suggestsome dimming, followed by an increase after1992, as seen in numerous ground observa-tions. It was also shown that tendencies overland and over ocean can differ in sign andmagnitude, and that in order to obtain a glob-al view of the dimming phenomena, there is aneed for comprehensive and global observa-tions that are possible only from satellites.There is a need to be aware of calibration is-sues regarding both ground-based and satel-lite data that might affect the interpretation oflong-term observations. The best available ap-proach to calibration was used to producethe satellite observations used in this study,and the most comprehensive global coverageachievable by combining geostationary andpolar-orbiting satellites was used. The magni-tudes of the observed tendencies in S at aglobal scale were much smaller in magnitudethan those reported from ground observations.References and Notes1. G. Stanhill, S. Cohen, Agric. For. Meteorol. 107, 255(2001).2. B. G. Liepert, Geophys.Res.Lett.29, 10.1029/2002GL014910 (2002).3. M. Wild et al., in preparation.4. A. Ohmura, H. Lang, IRS ’88: Current Problems inAtmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, Eds.(Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1989).5. V. Russak, Tellus 42B, 206 (1990).6. M. L. Roderick, G. D. Farquhar, Science 298, 1410 (2002).7. M. Wild, A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen, Geophys. Res. Lett.31, L11201 (2004).8. R. Philipona, B. Durr, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L22208(2004).9. R. Philipona, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L03202 (2004).10. V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, D. Rosenfeld,Science 294, 2119 (2001).11. H. C. Power, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 76, 47 (2003).12. E. Raveh et al., J. Exp. Bot. 54, 365 (2003).13. M. L. Roderick, G. D. Farquhar, S. L. Berry, I. R. Noble,Ecologia 129, 21 (2001).14. W. B. Rossow, R. A. Schiffer, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.72, 2 (1991).15. W. B. Rossow, R. A. Schiffer, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.80, 2261 (1999).16. C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, J. Atmos.Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091 (1997).17. Y. Desormeaux, W. B. Rossow, C. L. Brest, G. G.Campbell, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 304 (1993).18. R. T. Pinker, I. Laszlo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 194 (1992).19. C. H. Whitlock et al., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76,1(1995).20. M. Chiacchio, P. W. Stackhouse Jr., S. K. Gupta, S. J.Cox, J. C. Mikovitz, paper presented at the AmericanGeophysical Union 2004 Spring Meeting, Montreal,Quebec, Canada, 2004.21. P. W. Stackhouse Jr. et al., GEWEX News 14, 10 (2004).22. B. B. Hicks et al., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 2857(1996).23. R. T. Pinker et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D22), 8844(2003).24. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T.Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90 (CambridgeUniv. Press, Cambridge, ed. 2, 1992).25. E. G. Dutton et al., J. Geophys. Res. 109, D03204 (2004).26. X. Wang, J. R. Key, Science 299, 1725 (2003).27. B. A. Wielicki et al., Science 295, 841 (2002).28. B. A. Wielicki et al., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 853(1996).29. B. R. Barkstrom, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 1170(1984).30. T. M. Smith, R. W. Reynolds, J. Clim. 17, 2466 (2004).31. W. B. Rossow, E. N. Duenas, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.85, 167172 (2004).32. R. S. Stone, E. G. Dutton, J. M. Harris, D. Longenecker,J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4089 (2002).33. C. J. Tucker et al., Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184 (2001).34. R. Tateishi, M. Ebata, Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 2287(2004).35. E. Palle, P. R. Goode, P. Montan˜e´s-Rodrı´guez, S. E.Koonin, Science 304, 1299 (2004).36. Supported under NASA grants NAG59634 (EarthObserving System/Interdisciplinary Science Investiga-tion) and NNG04GD65G (Office of Earth Science)and benefited by work done under NAG5836 (EarthScience Enterprise/HYDROMET/Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) to the Uni-versity of Maryland. We appreciate the monumentaleffort of W. B. Rossow in preparing the ISCCP data;without such information, this study would not havebeen possible. The ISCCP D1 data were obtained fromthe NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center.Supporting Online Materialwww.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/308/5723/850/DC1Figs. S1 and S223 July 2004; accepted 16 March 200510.1126/science.1103159The Holocene Asian Monsoon:Links to Solar Changes andNorth Atlantic ClimateYongjin Wang,1Hai Cheng,1,2*R. Lawrence Edwards,2Yaoqi He,1Xinggong Kong,1Zhisheng An,3Jiangying Wu,1Megan J. Kelly,2Carolyn A. Dykoski,2Xiangdong Li4A 5-year-resolution absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Dongge Cave,southern China, provides a continuous history of the Asian monsoon over thepast 9000 years. Although the record broadly follows summer insolation, it ispunctuated by eight weak monsoon events lasting È1 to 5 centuries. Onecorrelates with the ‘‘8200-year’’ event, another with the collapse of theChinese Neolithic culture, and most with North Atlantic ice-rafting events.Cross-correlation of the decadal- to centennial-scale monsoon record withthe atmospheric carbon-14 record shows that some, but not all, of themonsoon variability at these frequencies results from changes in solar output.The impacts of decadal- to centennial-scalesolar variability on the climate system duringthe Holocene have been reported from mid tohigh northern latitudes (1–3) to low-latituderegimes (4–6), including the Asian monsoon(AM) (4, 5). To test the degree to which theHolocene AM may be linked to solar varia-bility, a high-resolution, precisely dated, con-tinuous record of the monsoon is needed. Sucha record could also be used to test the degreeto which changes in the interglacial AM arerelated to climate change elsewhere. For exam-ple, a number of studies have demonstratedclose ties between the glacial AM and the cli-mate in the North Atlantic region (7–9). The de-gree to which such links extend into interglacialperiods is an open question. We have previouslyreported on a Chinese Holocene record of theAM that addresses some of these issues (10).Here, we build on that work with a higher reso-lution absolute-dated Holocene AM record fromDongge Cave, southern China, which we com-pare in detail with the atmospheric14C record(as a proxy for solar output) and climate recordsfrom the North Atlantic region (2, 11–13).Stalagmite DA was collected from DonggeCave (25-17¶N, 108-5¶E, elevation 680 m) insouthern China. Today, the cave site has twodistinct


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