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MIT AST 101 - Final Exam Review

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37) What is the largest planet in the solar system?Astronomy 101, Final ReviewName___________________________________________________________________No notes, No books; You can use calculatorsConstants that you may need to know:c = 3 x 108 m/s 1 AU = 1.49 ×1011 meters 1 light year = 9.46 × 1015 metersh = 6.626 x 10-34 J●s mass of Earth = 5.97 × 1024 kg mass of Sun = 1.99 x 1030 kgG = 6.67 × 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2mass of Moon = 7.35 x 1022 kg mass of Jupiter = 1.90 x 1027 kgg = 9.8 m/s2radius of Earth = 6.38 × 106 m radius of Jupiter = 7.15 × 107 mσ = 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 K-41 nm = 1 x 10-9 meters radius of Moon = 1.74 × 106 m 1) The Drake equation is used to … A) Estimate how many possible planets in our solar system may have lifeB) Estimate how many possible intelligent, communicating civilizations thereare in our galaxy.C) Estimate how many possible intelligent, communicating civilizations thereare in our universe D) Estimate how many possible organisms may have existed on MarsE) Estimate the size of our solar system’s habitable zone2) Where is life most likely to exist on Mars today?A) Oceans on MarsB) Subsurface of MarsC).On the surface of Olympus MonsD) On the surface of Valles MarinerisE) On the surface of Hellas Basin3) Why is Europa thought to possibly harbor life?A) It has an iron coreB) It has a magnetic fieldC) It may have an ocean beneath its icy surfaceD) It contains hematite on its surfaceE) It contains iron on its surfaceAstronomy 101, Final Review4) The most common type of meteorite to fall on Earth are called …A) Ordinary chondritesB) Carbonaceous chondritesC) EucritesD) PallasitesE) Howardites5) The kinetic energy of a 100,000 kg asteroid travelling at 20 km/s is …A) 2 x 107 JoulesB) 2 x 1013 JoulesC) 4 x 108 JoulesD) 8 x 108 JoulesE) 8 x 1016 Joules6) Why is Halley’s Comet named after Edmond Halley?A) He was the first person to see this cometB) He predicted that this comet would first appear in 1756C) He discovered that this comet that he observed in 1682 had previouslybeen observed in the sky in 1531 and 1607D) He determined that this was a comet and not an asteroidE) He determined that this comet would reappear every two hundred yearsand when this comet reappeared in 1882, the comet was named after him7) One goal of the Hayabusa Mission is to …A) Return a sample of MarsB) Return a sample of a cometC) Return a sample of an asteroidD) Return a sample of VenusE) Return a sample of Mercury8) Which of the Jovian planets have rings?A) Only Jupiter and SaturnB) Only SaturnC) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and NeptuneD) Only Saturn and UranusE) Only Saturn and NeptuneAstronomy 101, Final Review9) Venus’ atmosphere is primarily … A) N2B) CO2C) O2D) O3E) Ar10) Caloris Basin is the result of an impact on the planet … A) Venus B) Mars C) Mercury D) Earth E) Jupiter11) Which is a true statement about Phoenix?A) Phoenix did not return any data back to Earth from MarsB) Phoenix dug trenches on Mars to look for evidence of waterC) Phoenix was a rover on MarsD) Phoenix was the first spacecraft to land on MarsE) Phoenix was launched by Russia to Mars12) Mars’ North Pole is composed primarily of …A) Carbon dioxide with a coating of frozen nitrogenB) Water ice with a coating of carbon dioxideC) Carbon monoxide with a coating of frozen argonD) Frozen nitrogen with a coating of frozen lithiumE) Hematite with a coating of sulfates13) ALH 84001 was thought to contain …A) Evidence of ancient life on MarsB) Evidence of ancient life on VenusC) Evidence of oceans on MarsD) Evidence of rivers on MarsE) Evidence of oceans on VenusAstronomy 101, Final Review14) Which two spacecrafts or landers had the primary goal of studying Venus?A) Venera 9 and MagellanB) Mariner 10 and Viking 1C) Messenger and Viking 2D) Galileo and Viking 2E) Voyager 1 and Mariner 1015) What has destroyed many of the craters that formed on Venus’ surface?A) The high atmospheric pressureB) Volcanic activityC) Erosion by waterD) Erosion by iceE) The magnetic field of Venus16) Put these planets in order from highest to lowest densities:Highest  LowestA) Mercury, Jupiter, MarsB) Mercury, Mars, JupiterC) Mars, Mercury, JupiterD) Mars, Jupiter, MercuryE) Jupiter, Mars, Mercury17) Assume that 239U has a half-life of 23 minutes and decays into 239Np. You initiallystart with 400 grams of pure 239U. How many grams of 239U will you have in 92 minutes?A) 25 gramsB) 50 gramsC) 75 gramsD) 100 gramsE) 12.5 grams18) Approximately how old is the Solar System?A) 3.6 billion yearsB) 6.8 billions yearC) 13.7 billion yearsD) 4.6 billion yearsE) 5.7 billion yearsAstronomy 101, Final ReviewAstronomy 101, Final Review19) Which gas is considered a greenhouse gas? A) Xe B) I C) He D) CO2 E) Ar20) The two most abundant elements in the Sun are … A) oxygen and carbon. B) iron and hydrogen. C) nitrogen and oxygen. D) hydrogen and helium. E) iron and helium.21) Plate tectonics describes …A) the large scale motions of Earth's asthenosphere.B) the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere.C) The convection in the Earth’s coreD) The capture of charged particles in the Van Allen Radiation beltsE) The formation of the Moon’s crust22) The transit method discovers planets around other stars by …A) Looking for decreases in the brightnesses of the starsB) Looking for Doppler shifts of spectral linesC) Looking for increases in the brightnesses of the starsD) Looking for collisions between the planets and the starsE) Looking for gamma-ray emissions from the planets23) A large, dark, basaltic plain on Earth's Moon that was formed by an ancientbasaltic flood eruption and caused by an extremely large asteroid impact is anexample of a Lunar …A) HighlandB) MareC) EstuaryD) ChannelE) EclipseAstronomy 101, Final Review24) Which of these objects could potentially produce the largest doppler shifts on the spectral lines of a star?A) A planet with the mass of Earth that is 10 AU from the starB) A planet with the mass of Earth that is 1 AU from the star C) A planet with the mass that is twenty times that of Jupiter that is 0.1 AU from the star D) A planet with a mass that is


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