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COMPARISON OF INDIAN COMMUNITIES IN MEXICOAnthropology 350Dr. Jane GranskogCharacteristic Sto. Tomas IxtepejiFeatures (Zapotec) (Zapotec) Population & Increasing population Decreasing pop. due to out-Ecosystem somewhat expansive w/ migration (1,237 in 70's)excess population restrictive ecosystem - poormigrating out (1,359 in quality & insufficient land;'72, '84 about 2,500); nucleated communitynucleated community Primary Organi- Patrilocal extended & Nuclear family (patrilocalzational Unit nuclear families; extend. preferred - first year) Larger, Organi- Effective corporate Civil & religious cargos -zational Units community organization; civil-religious hierarchy;emphasis on political corporate community offices; C-R hierarchy; organization; endogamous endogamous (5 barrios) Nature of Bonds Horizontal, M-S, dyadic Horizontal M-S dyadic tiesFormed and polyadic (corp. comm. (primarily) & polyadic ties -& compadrazgo); vertical compadrazgo & corp. comm.;S-S dyadic ties w/ mestizos vertical S-S ties w/ mestizos in in market place market; individualism emphasized Relation to Defensive but permissive Very hostile to all outsiders -Outside - Type of re: contact - change defensive & negative, disruptiveSocio-historical controlled by corp. comm. relations; fairly extensiveRelationship and organization; competitive & contact thru market networksExtensiveness of hostile re: other corporate (trading) in particularContact communities; fairly extensive at present Areas of Corporate community org., Fatalistic, defensive attitudesStability emphasis on egalitarianism, towd. all, factionalism, stronginstitutionalized envy, econ. individualism; restrictiveleveling mechanisms ecosystem limiting change Sources/Areas of Effect of migrants, Out-migration, work of I.N.I.Change continuous out-migration, schools; network market; fairlynetwork market, school, accessible to urban areasgovt. aid programs, access to urban areasCOMPARISON OF INDIAN PEASANT COMMUNITIES - 2 -COMPARISON OF INDIAN PEASANT COMMUNITIES - 3 -Characteristic Inapuchi TzintzuntzanFeatures (Tarahumara) (Tarascan) Population and Relatively stable pop., Increasing population (1,877,Ecosystem dispersed rancherias; 1960; 2600, 1980); restrictive eco-ecosystem somewhat system (poor lands); nucleatedrestrictive due to encroach- communityment of mestizos Primary Organiza- Nuclear family, some- Nuclear & "joint" patrilocaltional Unit times bilaterally extended extended family(seasonally variable) Larger Organiza- Rancho groups, tesguinada Previously a corporate comm.tional Units networks; pueblo with C-R. hierarchy; predom.mestizo now; barrio distinctions& mayordomia system no longer as important; secularization of fiestas Nature of the Horizontal, many-strded, Horizontal & vertical M-S,Bonds Formed primarily dyadic ties dyadic contract; vertical,expressed thru tesguino single-stranded dyadic ties w/networks; vertical, S-S mestizo outsidersdyadic ties w/ mestizos Relation to Outside Hostile - defensive & Defensive & somewhat hostileand Extensiveness negative, expressed increasing contact thruof Contact passively, withdrawn; CREFAL programs, transporta-very isolated (150 yrs), tion, school, participationlittle contact--sporatic; in bracero program, migrantsincreasing contact thru to Mexico City & U.S.; tourismtransportatn sys. & I.N.I; surrounding fiestasencroachment by mestizos Areas of Stability Continued isolation, Foster--image of limitedimportance of tesguinada good; values & personalitycomplex; flexible social type; institutional. envy;organization leveling mechanisms; emphasison egalitarianism despite status differences; focus of fiesta cycle (trad. values) Areas of Change Network market - increasing Network market, work ofnumber of mestizos, work CREFAL, bracero program,of I.N.I., transportation emergence of entrepreneursCOMPARISON OF INDIAN PEASANT COMMUNITIES - 4 -system;COMPARISON OF INDIAN PEASANT COMMUNITIES - 5 -Characteristic Zinacantan Amantenango/Tzo'ontahalFeatures (Tzotzil Maya) (Tzeltal Maya) Population and Restrictive ecosystem in Gradual inc. pop (1,832 inEcosystem highlands, more expansive in center, 3,134 total--1960)lowlands; increasing pop. out-migration to new ejidodispersed (ceremonial lands in lowlands; major - vacant town) for highlands w/ Guatemala refugees early '80's Primary Organiza- Domestic group - "nuclear" Nuclear family predominanttional Unit & patrilocal "extended" w/ bilaterally extendedfamily predominant family (yermanotak) increasing vs patrilineal ext. families Larger Organiza- "sna" - localized lineage, impt. networks includetional Units waterhole grp (2-13 snas), kumparetak & bersinatak;hamlets (endogamous), corp. upper & lower barrios; community (w/ respect to center vs hamlets, emphasiscargo system) on corp. community, C-R hierarchy-- emphasis on civil(ejido community); coops -- store & trucking especially Nature of Bonds Manystrded, horizontal M-S, horizontal, polyadic &Formed polyadic & dyadic ties; vert., dyadic ties; S-S verticalM-S, polyadic ties w/in ties w/ ladinos generallydescent grps to some extent;vert. dyadic, S-S ties w/ ladinos Relation to Outside Hostile, defensive, increased Hostile -- corp. comm. and Extensiveness contact thru transportation defensive; Pan-Am Hwy +of Contact system, schools, market; inc. ejido lands., I.N.Ihistoric contact not exten- based coops etc. havesive but exploitive increased some cooperation problems re: Guat. refugees Areas of Stability Reliance on ancestors, use Institutionalized envy - witch-of witchcraft, leveling craft accusatns ag. entreprenrs;mechanisms - civil-religious continued use of ancestors as hierarchy

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