New version page

Development of a Prototype Questionnaire

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-25-26-27 out of 27 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 27 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Development of a prototype questionnaire to survey public attitudes toward stuttering: principles and methodologies in the first prototype.(Survey) St. Louis, Kenneth O., Bobbie Boyd Lubker, J. Scott, Trisha A. Adkins, and Jaan Pill. "Development of a prototype questionnaire to survey public attitudes toward stuttering: principles and methodologies in the first prototype.(Survey). ." The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. (June 13, 2008): NA. General OneFile. Gale. California State Univ, Northridge. 2 Oct. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=ITOF&docId=A180592546&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=csunorthridge&version=1.0>. Full Text:COPYRIGHT 2008 Internet Scientific Publications LLC Abstract The Experimental Edition of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes (POSHA-E) was designed to investigate public opinions about stuttering and stuttering compared to other attributes cross-culturally and internationally. Respondents (n = 165) rated items on stuttering in the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative (e.g., "mental illness"), to neutral (e.g., "left-handed"), to positive (e.g., "intelligent"). Only those methodological results that inform subsequent development of this prototype survey instrument or the data collection processes are elaborated. The field test evaluated the efficiency of a quasi-continuous scale, order effects, scoring efficiency, and data reduction in nonprobability samples. Order effects were minimal. Problems in respondent scoring and data reduction were appreciable, but these did not appear to affect the mean scores on the POSHA-E. Results have implications for data collection methods for the population-based international project and illustrate complexities of contemporary survey research methods. Keywords: Stuttering, Attitudes, Stigma, Stereotypes, Sampling Project Overview, Rationale, And Measurement Issues Long-Range Goals A task force was convened in 1999 to launch an international initiative devoted to exploring public attitudes toward stuttering. Its long-term objectives were to develop a survey instrument that could effectively obtain baseline measures of public attitudes toward stuttering in comparison to various other stigmatizing conditions potentially in any part of the world. Once completed, the empirical data to be gained from the instrument could be used by various stakeholders to foster and to evaluate effectiveness of strategies for mitigating societal stigma to which people who stutter are subjected. St. Louis (2005) briefly reported the rationale and vision for this "International Project on Attitudes Toward Human Attributes" (IPATHA). This paper elaborates the rationale and vision followed by explanations of initial steps in the development ofan instrument designed to obtain such baseline measures. Specifically it describes the rationale, design, and initial field-testing of the first experimental version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes (POSHA-E). Rationale Scope of the Problem of Stigma Stigma, regarded by Goffman (1963) as the manifestation of a "spoiled identity," is a universal human experience. Individuals who are regarded as being undesirable or potentially dangerous often live with ridicule, bullying, and illegal discrimination. As a result they do not seek or receive the health care or specialized treatments they need and may experience lifelong negative consequences in education, employment, promotion, and social acceptance. Since Goffman's seminal work, stigma has been recognized as an important area of scientific inquiry. Stigma and its behavioral manifestation, discrimination, negatively affects health, both physically and mentally, of more than one billion of the world's population (Wahl, 1999; Weiss, Jadhav, Raguram, Vounatsou, & Littlewood, 2001). Moreover, stigma and discrimination are especially powerful in low- to moderate-income (developing) countries and marginalized groups in high-income (developed) nations (Ustun, Rehm, Chatterji, Saxena, Trotter, Room, Bickenbach, et al., 1999). If stigma could be reduced, the well-being and health of millions could be improved. Available evidence clearly indicates that negative public attitudes can have dramatic negative impacts on the lives of people with a variety of stigmatizing characteristics. Mental illness is one area that has received perhaps the greatest attention (e.g., Crisp, Gelder, Rix, Meltzer, & Rowlands, 2000; Gelder, 2001, Sartorius, Jablonsky, Korton, Ernberg, Anker, Cooper, & Day, 1986; Thompson, 1999; Thompson, Stuart, Bland, Arbolele-Florez, Warner, & Dickson, 2002), but stigma affects people with numerous other conditions, including communication disorders. As noted above, this field study focuses on the specific communication disorder of stuttering. In the case of stuttering, stigma is often discussed within the context of a "stuttering stereotype" (Blood, 1999; Cooper & Cooper, 1985; Ham, 1990; Reingold & Krishnan, 2002). Moreover, stigma has been shown to change or vary according to specific variables. For example, when stuttering persons are acquainted personally with respondents, reported stigma seems to disappear (Klassen, 2002). None of the foregoing means that physical aspects of many stigmatized conditions are unimportant in consideration of health outcomes. For stuttering it is well known that physiological and neurological differences exist between stuttering speakers and nonstuttering controls, when groups are compared in physiological domains such as genetics and brain function (e.g., Drayna, Kilshaw, & Kelly, 1999; De Nil, Kroll, Lafaille, & Houle, 2003). Nevertheless, social environments play an important role in the way stuttering is experienced, how it develops, and its effect on persons' lives (e.g., Conture, 2001; Smith & Kelly, 1997; Yaruss & Quesal, 2004). Measuring Stigma Increasingly, there are calls for public awareness and education campaigns to diminish stigma associated with stuttering and other conditions (e.g., Blood, 1999; ILAE/IBE/WHO GlobalCampaign Against Epilepsy, 2002, Klompas & Ross, 2004; Langevin, 1997; NAAFA, 2002; Wahl, 1999; WHO, 2001). The rationale is that if groups who are stigmatized could, through a more educated public, face positive or even neutral public reactions to their conditions, the impact of their conditions would become less handicapping. If this


Download Development of a Prototype Questionnaire
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Development of a Prototype Questionnaire and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Development of a Prototype Questionnaire 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?