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In-Film Bioprocessing and Immunoanalysis with Electroaddressable Stimuli-Responsive Polysaccharides



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www afm journal de www MaterialsViews com FULL PAPER In Film Bioprocessing and Immunoanalysis with Electroaddressable Stimuli Responsive Polysaccharides By Xiaohua Yang Eunkyoung Kim Yi Liu Xiao Wen Shi Gary W Rubloff Reza Ghodssi William E Bentley Zeev Pancer and Gregory F Payne biosensing genomics and proteomics Analogous efforts are underway to localize culture and analyze viable cells on chip for applications that range from performing fundamental studies in cell biology to mimicking the multi organ metabolism of drugs Three themes appear to be emerging for the on chip cultivation of cells First hydrogel films are generally preferred for replicating biological microenvironments and preserving labile biological functions e g to maintain cell viability 1 7 Second fabrication methods for patterning films often enlist convenient spatiotemporally controllable stimuli For instance printing and photolithographic patterning employ mechanical and optical inputs 6 8 14 while there are growing efforts to use electrical stimuli to perform functions such as electroaddressing 15 33 Finally biological materials and mechanisms may offer opportunities to biofabricate functional hydrogel films 34 41 For instance stimuli responsive biological polymers form hydrogels in response to mild stimuli these hydrogel networks can be reversibly formed broken and there is extensive biotechnological experience with biopolymer based hydrogels e g gelatin and agarose Recently stimuli responsive polysaccharides have been observed to be capable of electrodepositing at electrode surfaces in response to localized electrical signals 42 43 In most cases these Advances in thin film fabrication are integral to enhancing the power of microelectronics while fabrication methods that allow the integration of biological molecules are enabling advances in bioelectronics A thin filmfabrication method that further extends the integration of biology with microelectronics by allowing living biological systems to



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