Nuclear Radiation (22 pages)
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Nuclear Radiation
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 22
 School:
 University of Texas at Arlington
 Course:
 Phys 3446  Nuclear and Particle Physics
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PHYS 3446 Lecture 9 Monday Oct 9 2006 Dr Jae Yu 1 Nuclear Radiation Beta Decay Weak Interactions Gamma Decay 2 Energy Deposition in Media Monday Oct 9 2006 Charged Particle Detection Ionization Process PHYS 3446 Fall 2006 Jae Yu 1 Term exam Announcements First term exam results Class average 80 1 Max score 107 100 Each term exam constitutes 15 Total 30 Homework 15 Lab 15 Class projects 20 final paper 10 Oral presentation Pop quizzes 10 Extra credit 10 Suggest going into today s colloquium Monday Oct 9 2006 PHYS 3446 Fall 2006 Jae Yu 2 Discovery of Alpha and Beta Radiations After Bacquerel s discovery of uranium effect on photo films in 1896 The Curies began study of radio activity in 1898 Rutherford also studied using a more systematic experimental equipments in 1898 Measured the currents created by the radiations While Bacquerel concluded that rays are observed in different levels Rutherford made the observation using electrometer and determined that there are at least two detectable rays Named and rays Monday Oct 9 2006 PHYS 3446 Fall 2006 Jae Yu 3 Nuclear Radiation Decays Three kinds of decays Electron emission Nucleus with large Nn Atomic number increases by one Nucleon number stays the same A X Z A Y Z 1 e Positron emission Nucleus with many protons Atomic number decreases by one Nucleon number stays the same A X Z A Y Z 1 e You can treat nucleus reaction equations algebraically The reaction is valid in the opposite direction as well Any particle moved over the arrow becomes its anti particle A Z A Z 1 X Y Monday Oct 9 2006 e A PHYS 3446 Fall 2006 Jae Yu X Z e A Y Z 1 4 Nuclear Radiation Decays Electron capture Nucleus with many protons A Z 1 A Z e Y Absorbs a K shell atomic electron X Proton number decreases by one Causes cascade X ray emission from the transition of remaining atomic electrons For decay A 0 and Z 1 Monday Oct 9 2006 PHYS 3446 Fall 2006 Jae Yu 5 Nuclear Radiation Decays Initially assumed to be 2 body decay A Z A Z 1 X Y e From energy
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