ISU CE 326 - Water Quality Concepts II (3 pages)

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Water Quality Concepts II



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Water Quality Concepts II

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
3
School:
Iowa State University
Course:
Ce 326 - Prin Environmt Engr

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CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Water Quality Concepts II Dr S K Ong General Characteristics of Groundwater and Surface Water Groundwater Surface Water Typical Water Quality common cations and anions Major mg L Secondary mg L Cations Sodium Na Calcium Ca2 Magnesium Mg2 Cations Iron Fe2 and Fe3 Potassium K Manganese Mn2 Anions Bicarbonate HCO3Sulfate SO42Chloride Cl Anions Carbonate CO32Nitrate NO3Silica SiO2 or Si4 Fluoride F pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion activity concentration for dilute solution and is given by where is in terms of moles liter Water ionizes to form H and OH and is given by the balanced equation The product of the activity or concentration of H and OH is a constant at a given temperature i e H OH Kw Kw is called the ion product of water Carbonate system Bicarbonates HCO3 carbonates CO32 and carbon dioxide in water H2CO3 are the most dominant acids bases system in natural waters Weak acid or bases are defined as acids or bases that do dissociate completely In contrast strong acids such as sulfuric acid hydrochloric acid and nitric acid dissociates completely when added to water ex Let us examine the carbonates in water 1 Sources carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolve in water to form carbonic acid limestone will contribute HCO3 and CO32 to natural waters carbonate minerals such as The different carbonate species are formed in natural water depending on the pH and can be expressed as follows Ka1 10 6 3 Ka2 10 10 3 measure of the capacity of a water to neutralize strong acids attributed to bases such as HCO3 CO32 OH measure of the capacity of a water to neutralize strong base attributed to acids such as HCO3 H2CO3 H Total alkalinity moles L Total alkalinity mg L as CaCO3 units in mg L as CaCO3 Alkalinity is measured by titrating a known volume of water sample usually 50 ml with a standard solution of a strong acid to about pH 4 5 Alkalinity in mg L as CaCO3 Normality of Acid x Volume of acid added x 50 000 Volume of water



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