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Mycologia 102 3 2010 pp 664 674 DOI 10 3852 09 180 2010 by The Mycological Society of America Lawrence KS 66044 8897 Lepiota in California species with a hymeniform pileus covering Else C Vellinga1 spore Ku hner 1945 Vellinga and Huijser 1999 whereas the other species have two as is usual in Lepiota Cheilocystidia are present or absent The morphological differences among the species are often subtle Vellinga and Huijser 1999 but nrITS sequence data support the morphologically recognized species However species with a hymeniform pileipellis do not form a monophyletic group Vellinga 2003 This group has been accommodated in 1 3 sections based on morphological characters according to various authors Singer 1986 put all species in section Cristatae Ku hner ex Wasser Bon regardless of spore shape but Bon 1993 placed them in three sections in two subgenera by distinguishing species with bullet shaped spores in sect Cristatae from species with ellipsoid spores in subgenus Paralepiotula Bon He then divided this subgenus in two sect Integrellae Ku hner ex Bon Bon for species with a pileus covering that does not split open and only one nucleus per spore and sect Lilaceae Bon for species whose pileus covering breaks open into scales and have binucleate spores Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data failed to resolve many of these differences Vellinga 2003 However they clearly showed that species with bullet shaped spores and a hymeniform pileus covering such as L cristata belong with ellipsoid spored species and a similar pileus covering and not with species with spurred spores and a trichodermal pileus covering The bullet shaped spores arose once in this clade of ellipsoid spored species the more pronouncedly spurred spores in the group of species with trichodermal or cutis like pileus covering L boudieri Bres L castanea Que l evolved independently The molecular data Vellinga 2003 also did not support a separate section for L rufipes which differs from the other species

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