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MTU GE 4150 - Satellite Remote Sensing

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Satellite Remote SensingSatellite Remote SensingGE 4150GE 4150-- Natural HazardsNatural HazardsSome slides taken from Ann Maclean: Introduction to Some slides taken from Ann Maclean: Introduction to Digital Image ProcessingDigital Image ProcessingRemote SensingRemote Sensing“the art, science, and technology of obtaining “the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the reliable information about physical objects and the environment, through the process of recording, environment, through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting imagery and digital measuring and interpreting imagery and digital measuring and interpreting imagery and digital measuring and interpreting imagery and digital representations of energy patterns derived from representations of energy patterns derived from noncontact sensor systems”. (Cowell 1997)noncontact sensor systems”. (Cowell 1997)Taken from: Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3Taken from: Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rdrdedition. edition. Jensen, 2004Jensen, 2004Remote SensingRemote SensingA remote sensing instrument collects information about an object or phenomenon within the instantaneous-field-of-view instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) of the sensor system without being in direct physical contact with it. The sensor is located on a suborbitalor satellite platform.Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Remote SensingRemote SensingRemote sensing is a tool or technique similar to mathematics. Using sensors to measure the amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exiting an object or geographic area from a distance and then extracting valuable information from the data using mathematically information from the data using mathematically and statistically based algorithms is a scientificactivity. It functions in harmony with other spatialdata-collection techniques or tools of the mapping sciences, including cartography and geographic information systems (GIS) (Clarke, 2001). Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Remote SensingRemote SensingInformation about an Object or AreaInformation about an Object or AreaSensors can be used to obtain specific information about Sensors can be used to obtain specific information about an object (e.g., the diameter of a cottonwood tree crown) an object (e.g., the diameter of a cottonwood tree crown) or the geographic extent of a phenomenon (e.g., the or the geographic extent of a phenomenon (e.g., the boundary of a cottonwood stand). The EMR reflected, boundary of a cottonwood stand). The EMR reflected, emitted, or backemitted, or back--scattered from an object or geographic scattered from an object or geographic emitted, or backemitted, or back--scattered from an object or geographic scattered from an object or geographic area is used as a area is used as a surrogatesurrogate for the actual property under for the actual property under investigation. The electromagnetic energy investigation. The electromagnetic energy measurements must be calibrated and turned into measurements must be calibrated and turned into information using visual and/or digital image processing information using visual and/or digital image processing techniques.techniques.Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Electromagnetic EnergyElectromagnetic EnergyThermonuclear fusion on the surface of the Sun yields a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic energy. Thermonuclear fusion on the surface of the Sun yields a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic energy. The 6,000 K temperature of this process produces a large amount of short wavelength energy (from 0.4 The 6,000 K temperature of this process produces a large amount of short wavelength energy (from 0.4 --0.7 0.7 µµm; blue, green, and red light) that travels through the vacuum of space at the speed of light. Some m; blue, green, and red light) that travels through the vacuum of space at the speed of light. Some energy is intercepted by the Earth where it interacts with the atmosphere and surface materials. The Earth energy is intercepted by the Earth where it interacts with the atmosphere and surface materials. The Earth may reflect some of the energy directly back out to space or it may absorb the short wavelength energy may reflect some of the energy directly back out to space or it may absorb the short wavelength energy and then reand then re--emit it at a longer wavelength.emit it at a longer wavelength.Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 20042.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 violet limit bluegreen limit Photon energy of visible light in electron volts (eV) Photon wavelength in nanometers (nm) 400 450 550 10 -14 10 -8 10 -6 Sun Earth Gamma and x-ray Ultraviolet Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic Spectrum and the Photon Energy of Visible LightVisible 10 -12 3.10 2.752.252.48green 500ultraviolet 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 violet limit bluegreen limit Photon energy of visible light in electron volts (eV) Photon wavelength in nanometers (nm) 400 450 550 10 -14 10 -8 10 -6 Sun Earth Gamma and x-ray Ultraviolet Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic Spectrum and the Photon Energy of Visible LightVisible 10 -12 3.10 2.752.252.48green 500ultraviolet 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 green limit yellow orange red 550 580 600 65010 10 -2 10 Infrared Microwave and radio waves 2.252.142.061.9110001.241.77 700red limit30k0.041near-infraredfar infrared0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 green limit yellow orange red 550 580 600 65010 10 -2 10 Infrared Microwave and radio waves 2.252.142.061.9110001.241.77 700red limit30k0.041near-infraredfar infraredIntroductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004Introductory Digital Image Processing. 3rd edition. Jensen, 2004SensorsSensors Passive Passive  Sun’s energy which is reflected Sun’s energy which is reflected (visible) or(visible) or Absorbed and reAbsorbed and re--emitted as emitted as thermal infrared wavelengthsthermal infrared wavelengthsthermal infrared


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