Columbia NURSING N5290 - Hepatitis B - A Clinical Perspective (7 pages)

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Hepatitis B - A Clinical Perspective



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Hepatitis B - A Clinical Perspective

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
7
School:
Columbia University
Course:
Nursing N5290 - Science of Nursing Practice in the Community

Unformatted text preview:

Hepatitis B Overview Serious Causes death from liver disease in up to 25 of those infected at birth Hepatitis B A Clinical Perspective Cancer related Liver cancer especially prevalent in areas of world where hepatitis B is common Disease of refugees New arrival Southeast Asian refugees 1 out of 2 is immune 1 out of 7 is a carrier 1 out of 3 is susceptible Preventable Safe effective and affordable vaccination is available Adapted by Jill Gallin CPNP Assistant Professor of Clinical Nursing December 2002 Geographic Distribution of Chronic HBV Infection Hepatitis B Incidence in U S 2001 Estimated incidence 78 000 cases year Reported cases Acute hepatitis B 7 844 HBsAg Prevalence 8 High 2 7 Intermediate 2 Low Hepatitis B by Year United States 1966 2000 Cases per 100 000 Population 14 Vaccine licensed 12 HBsAg screening of pregnant women recommended Infant immunization recommended 10 OSHA rule enacted 8 6 Adolescent Immunization recommended Transmission of HBV 1 Concentration of HBV in various body fluids High Blood serum wound exudates Medium saliva semen and vaginal secretions Low not detectable urine feces sweat tears breastmilk Perinatal transplacental transmission rare 2 5 4 Decline among MSM HCWs 2 Decline among injecting drug users Sexual transmission unprotected sex 0 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 Source NNDSS Year 1 Transmission of HBV 2 Percutaneous transmission sharing of injection drug use equipment needle stick injury ear piercing body piercing tattooing inadequate sterilization of medical equipment scarification Household and interhousehold transmission less risk but significant can occur in settings such as shared toothbrushes razors combs washcloths Transmission of HBV 4 Institutionalized settings risks of biting sexual abuse More than 1 4 of acute cases have no readily identifiable risk factor Not spread by sneezing or coughing sharing eating utensils Transmission of HBV 3 Passed from child to child by biting shared objects



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