UI ENGR 2510 - ROUTINE LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS (8 pages)

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ROUTINE LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS



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ROUTINE LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS

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Pages:
8
School:
University of Iowa
Course:
Engr 2510 - Fluid Mechanics

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57 020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transfer Processes ROUTINE LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MAIN FLUID MECHANICS QUANTITIES In this section the underlying principles characteristics and operation of the most common fluid measuring devices used throughout the laboratory activity are described 1 Liquid Level Measurement Usually these measurements are associated with free surface or stationary flows Scales and tapes for the measurement of length are readily available in a variety of forms A type of linear measurement peculiar to the fluids laboratory is the measurement of surface level in an open channel This measurement is accomplished in general by means of a point gage The gage is comprising a pointed shaft or hook mounted on a graduated rod which can be moved vertically relative to a zero line Further precision can be gained by means of a vernier see Figure 2 which allows to make readings with a precision of 0 001 ft Contact with the surface is best observed in the reflection of light In zone of hydrostatic pressure the liquid level can be determined by connecting a conveniently located piezometer or open manometer open tubes for measurement of the pressure head of liquids or a stilling well with point gage Both methods remove difficulties associated with the waviness of the free surface 2 Pressure Measurement The simplest instruments for pressure measurement are the single column manometers They measure the pressure head relative to some arbitrary datum Most often it is the difference between two levels or heads in a static or moving stream that is to be measured Then rather to make two separate readings and subtract one from the other we use the differential manometer which yield a single differential reading Differential manometers relate a pressure difference to the densities and the elevations of liquid columns into a U tube The configuration of such a manometer is shown in Fig 1 By repeated application of the hydrostatic formula we can relate



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