FSU FORS 420 - Forensic Biology Chapter 001 (20 pages)

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Forensic Biology Chapter 001



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Forensic Biology Chapter 001

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
20
School:
Fayetteville State University
Course:
Fors 420 - Forensics Chemistry I

Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 1 Forensic Biology Common Disciplines Crime scene investigation Latent print examination Forensic Biology Controlled substance analysis Postmortem toxicology Questioned document examination Firearms toolmark and other impression evidence examination Explosives and fire debris examination Transfer Trace evidence examination Forensic Biology by Richard Li 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Forensic Pathology Autopsies used to determine exact cause of death Time of death Manner of death Natural Homicide Suicide Accident Undetermined 9 10 11 Forensic Anthropology Identification and examination of human skeletal remains Examination may reveal Individual s origin Sex Approximate age Race Presence of skeletal injuries 12 Forensic Entomology The study of insects in relation to a criminal investigation Estimating time of death Stages of insect development 13 Forensic Odontology Participate in the identification of victims whose bodies are unrecognizable Use characteristics of teeth alignment and overall structure Bite mark analysis 14 History Antigen polymorphism Protein polymorphism DNA polymorphism 15 Antigen Polymorphism 1900 Karl Landsteiner discovered ABO blood groups A B AB O Forensic serology Useful in excluding a suspect 16 Protein polymorphism By 1980 approximately 100 had been discovered Combined with blood groups lowered the probability of a match between two unrelated individuals 17 DNA polymorphism 1984 Sir Alec Jeffreys Variable Number Tandem Repeat VNTR Used in 1986 to solve murder case in the United Kingdom Able to reveal far greater individual variability The probability of two unrelated individuals having the same DNA profile is low DNA from crime scene can be matched to a suspect 18 DNA polymorphism Mid 1980 s Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR technique Amplifies tiny quantities of DNA Greatly increased the sensitivity of forensic DNA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNP Amplified Length Polymorphisms AFLP Short Tandem Repeat STR Greatly increased the sensitivity of the



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