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Altered states: The impact of immediate craving on the valuation of current and future opioids



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This article was published in an Elsevier journal The attached copy is furnished to the author for non commercial research and education use including for instruction at the author s institution sharing with colleagues and providing to institution administration Other uses including reproduction and distribution or selling or licensing copies or posting to personal institutional or third party websites are prohibited In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article e g in Word or Tex form to their personal website or institutional repository Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit http www elsevier com copyright Author s personal copy Journal of Health Economics 26 2007 865 876 Altered states The impact of immediate craving on the valuation of current and future opioids Gary J Badger a Warren K Bickel b Louis A Giordano c Eric A Jacobs d George Loewenstein e Lisa Marsch f g a Biometry Facility University of Vermont Untied States Department of Psychiatry University of Arkansas Untied States c Department of Psychiatry Duke University Untied States d Department of Psychology Southern Illinois University Untied States Department of Social Decision Sciences Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213 Untied States f National Development and Research Institutes Untied States g Department of Psychiatry St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center New York NY Untied States b e Received 9 June 2006 received in revised form 4 January 2007 accepted 4 January 2007 Available online 16 January 2007 Abstract Based on prior research showing that people underestimate the influence of motivational states they are not currently experiencing we predicted and found that heroin addicts would value an extra dose of the heroin substitute Buprenorphine more highly when they were currently craving right before receiving BUP than when they were currently satiated right after receiving BUP even when



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