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ARTICLE IN PRESS Planetary and Space Science 53 2005 937 943 www elsevier com locate pss Statistics of depleted ux tubes in the jovian magnetosphere C T Russell M G Kivelson K K Khurana Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of California Los Angeles CA 90095 1567 USA Received 25 September 2003 received in revised form 23 March 2005 accepted 6 April 2005 Available online 2 June 2005 Abstract On many of its passes through the Io torus the Galileo spacecraft has detected the presence of what appear to be thin magnetic ux tubes with elds somewhat higher than their surroundings On these ux tubes the magnetic pressure is suf ciently above the pressure of neighboring tubes that it is possible the plasma contributions to the pressure within these tubes are depleted Due to their short duration they are only detectable in high time resolution magnetometer data Herein we survey all high time resolution data that are available over the full Galileo mission and present a nal statistical study These tubes occupy 0 32 of the torus outside the orbit of Io None are found inside Their strength indicates that the ratio of the thermal pressure to magnetic pressure in the outer torus is about 2 Comparison of the observed electron density in the neighborhood of these tubes indicates that the ion temperature is in the range 30 100 eV consistent with other estimates The amount of magnetic ux transported by these thin tubes could supply the amount of magnetic ux mass loaded and transported to the magnetotail if the inward velocity is about 300 times that of the outward transport Finally the thin ux tubes are found in clusters as they would occur if they resulted from the breakup of larger ux tubes r 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved 1 Introduction The exploration of the jovian system by the Galileo spacecraft has been one of both excitement and challenge Many new and unexpected phenomena have been discovered and a much longer



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