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A System for Three Dimensional Robotic Mapping of Underground Mines Michael Montemerlo Dirk Ha hnel David Ferguson Rudolph Triebel Wolfram Burgard Scott Thayer William Whittaker and Sebastian Thrun Oct 27 2002 CMU CS 02 185 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213 This research is sponsored by by DARPA s MARS Program Contract number N66001 01C 6018 and the National Science Foundation CAREER grant number IIS 9876136 and regular grant number IIS 9877033 all of which is gratefully acknowledged The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing official policies or endorsements either expressed or implied of the United States Government or any of the sponsoring institutions Abstract We describe two robotic systems 6 for acquiring high resolution volumetric maps of underground mines Our systems have been deployed in an operational coal mine in Bruceton Pennsylvania where they have been used to generate interactive 3 D maps Our approach includes a novel sensor head assembled from multiple SICK laser range finders and a real time algorithm for scan matching that generates accurate volumetric maps The scan matching algorithm performs horizontal and vertical simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM Data from the horizontal scans is used to remove artifacts in the vertical scans and vice versa The system can construct full 3 D volumetric maps hundreds of meters in diameter even when no odometry information is available Keywords Robot mapping mine mapping mobile robotics probabilistic robotics 1 Introduction Throughout the industrialized world the lack of accurate maps of inactive underground mines poses a serious threat to public safety According to a recent article 1 Tens of thousands perhaps even hundreds of thousands of abandoned mines exist today in the United States Not even the U S Bureau of Mines knows the exact number because federal recording of

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