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ements, Element Association, Bonding, and Element Fractionation



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1 Elements Element Association Bonding and Element Fractionation 1 The Atomic Structure The energy levels K L M and N The orbitals s p d f The four quantum numbers Table 1 1 the principal quantum number n which determines the energy and overall size of the orbital 2 the orbital quantum number l which determines the angular momentum and configuration of the orbital 3 the magnetic quantum number m which describes the shape and orientation of the orbital relative to an externally applied magnetic field 4 the spin quantum number s which determines the direction of spin of an electron within this orbital Each energy level or shell has a unique principal quantum number for shell K n 1 for L n 2 etc n is related to the orbital number l by the relation n l 1 Thus for n 2 l 0 or 1 etc The orbitals s p d and f correspond to the l values 0 1 2 and 3 respectively with the s orbitals having the lowest energies and the f ones the highest The maximum number of orbitals in a given shell is equal to n2 For each value of l the number of orbitals is given by the relationship 2l 1 Orbitals which have the same value of l have the same energy level and are therefore considered degenerate even though they have different values of m which describe their different shapes and orientations The fourth quantum number s has a value of 1 2 or 1 2 representing the direction of spin or rotation of an electron around itself in a given orbital The maximum of electrons in a shell 2n2 Pauli s Exclusion Principle No two electrons can be described by exactly the same set of quantum numbers Therefore when two electrons share the same orbital i e n l and m are the same they must have different directions of spin i e different s Because the maximum number of electrons in any orbital is 2 every electron in an atom will have a unique set of quantum number values The Aufbau Principle Electrons will tend to occupy the lower energy shells and orbitals before the higher energy ones Therefore the orbitals are



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