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AIAA 2002 5401 9th AIAA ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization 4 6 September 2002 Atlanta Georgia MORPHING AIRFOIL SHAPE CHANGE OPTIMIZATION WITH MINIMUM ACTUATOR ENERGY AS AN OBJECTIVE Brian C Prock Terrence A Weisshaar William A Crossley Purdue University School of Aeronautics and Astronautics West Lafayette Indiana Abstract Morphing aircraft are multi role aircraft that use innovative actuators effectors and mechanisms to change their state to perform select missions with substantially improved system performance State change in this study means a change in the cross sectional shape of the wing itself not chord extension or span extension Integrating actuators and mechanisms into an effective light weight structural topology that generates lift and sustains the air loads generated by the wing is central to the success of morphing shape changing wings and airfoils The objective of this study is to explore a process to link analytical models and optimization tools with design methods to create energy efficient lightweight wing structure actuator combinations for morphing aircraft wings In this case the energy required to change from one wing or airfoil shape to another is used as the performance index for optimization while the aerodynamic performance such as lift or drag is constrained Three different but related topics are considered energy required to operate articulated trailing edge flaps and slats attached to flexible 2D airfoils optimal minimum energy articulated control deflections on wings to generate lift and deformable airfoils with cross sectional shape changes requiring strain energy changes to move from one lift coefficient to another Results indicate that a formal optimization scheme using minimum actuator energy as an objective and internal structural topology features as design variables can identify the best actuators and their most effective locations so that minimal energy is required to operate a morphing wing Background

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