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Chapter 11 Stimulants



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Chapter 11 Stimulants Cocaine Amphetamines Amphetamine Methamphetamine Ephedrine Cathinone khat MDMA ecstasy Methylphenidate Caffeine Nicotine http www smart kit com wp content uploads 2007 02 saved running man energy jpg Cocaine http static flickr com 39 113049226 b12e1a8da0 jpg Map of principal coca growing regions of South America Cocaine Freud advocated use of cocaine the wonder drug Cocaine use in US Cocaine Coca leaves Coca paste Cocaine hydrochloride HCl Freebasing Crack Cocaine Cocaine Mechanisms of cocaine action Cocaine Cocaine Computerized tomographic CT scan of a thalamic hemorrhage in a crack cocaine smoker Cocaine Stimulants and DA Important anatomical connection Dopaminergic connections from midbrain substantia nigra and VTA to striatum and nucleus accumbens Effects Nucleus accumbens Locomotor response Reward system activation Striatum Stereotyped behaviors Cocaine Cocaine Abuse and Dependence 10 15 of initial users become cocaine abusers Cocaine abusers report initially using legal illegal drugs at about age 13 14 Initial use usually thru snorting Factors important to changes in use patterns Reinforcing effects stimulating euphoric confidenceboosting effects Switch from snorting to smoking or IV injection Cocaine Tolerance after chronic cocaine use Cocaine Sensitization after chronic cocaine use Cocaine Hypothetical relationship between cocaine use synaptic DA levels and mood Cocaine Withdrawal Few withdrawal symptoms other than depression Acute withdrawal Death by cocaine About 25 of deaths reported with cocaine use are due to the drug effects Causes include cerebral hemorrhaging lethal cardiac arrhythmia myocardial infarction heart attack even in individuals with no prior heart problems Cocaine Brain Abnormalities in Cocaine Abusers Low blood flow in some regions Deficits in glucose utilization in frontal lobe Decreased grey matter concentration Consequences Deficits in Verbal memory Attention Motor function



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