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A Demonstration of the Effects of Digitization on the Calculation of Kurtosis for the Detection of RFI in Microwave Radiometry



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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING VOL 46 NO 10 OCTOBER 2008 3129 A Demonstration of the Effects of Digitization on the Calculation of Kurtosis for the Detection of RFI in Microwave Radiometry Roger D De Roo Member IEEE and Sidharth Misra Abstract Microwave radiometers detecting geophysical parameters are very susceptible to radio frequency interference RFI from anthropogenic sources RFI is always additive to a brightness observation and so the presence of RFI can bias geophysical parameter retrieval As microwave radiometers typically have the most sensitive receivers operating in their band low level RFI is both significant and difficult to identify The kurtosis statistic can be a powerful means of identifying some types of low level RFI as thermal noise has a distinct kurtosis value of three whereas thermal noise contaminated even with low level nonthermal RFI often has other values of kurtosis This paper derives some benign distortions of the kurtosis statistic due to digitization effects and demonstrates these effects with a laboratory experiment in which a known amount of low level RFI is injected into a digital microwave radiometer Index Terms Detectors digital radio interference suppression microwave radiometry I I NTRODUCTION R ADIO FREQUENCY interference RFI in microwave radiometry is both common and insidious Such an interference has been documented at L band 1 2 C band 3 6 X band 6 7 and potentially at K band 8 The prevalence of RFI at the lower frequencies of the microwave spectrum where protected bandwidths are relatively small or for C band nonexistent suggests that the powerful signalprocessing capabilities of digital receiver technology can be employed for RFI detection We previously reported an RFI detection technique which uses the kurtosis of the predetected voltage in a digital radiometer receiver to identify the presence of RFI This technique has been demonstrated in the field 9 where the kurtosis statistic flagged many



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