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Vehicle to grid power implementation



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Journal of Power Sources xxx 2005 xxx xxx Vehicle to grid power implementation From stabilizing the grid to supporting large scale renewable energy Willett Kempton Jasna Tomic University of Delaware Newark DE 19716 USA Received 12 November 2004 received in revised form 8 December 2004 accepted 8 December 2004 Abstract Vehicle to grid power V2G uses electric drive vehicles battery fuel cell or hybrid to provide power for specific electric markets This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G It quantitatively compares today s light vehicle fleet with the electric power system The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity less than one tenth the utilization and one tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW Conversely utility generators have 10 50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G After the initial high value V2G markets saturate and production costs drop V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large scale one half of US electricity wind power with 3 of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind plus 8 38 of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified 2005 Elsevier B V All rights reserved Keywords Electric vehicle Fuel cell Plug in hybrid Vehicle to grid power Ancillary services Renewable energy Wind power 1 Introduction This article builds upon the article Vehicle to grid power fundamentals V2G calculating capacity and net revenue 1 That companion article develops equations to calculate the power capacity and revenues for electric drive vehicles used to provide power for several



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