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Liquid crystals as quintessential soft matter



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Introductory remarks Liquid crystals as quintessential soft matter Simultaneously transmit torques solid and flow liquid NOT a soft solid like a gel but a true solid and a true fluid Contrast with glasses transmits torque for high frequencies while flows for low frequencies Very soft kT is very important What is responsible for this remarkable behavior Introductory remarks Classification of liquid crystals by symmetry structure and description of their macroscopic properties Classification of liquid crystals by materials length scale geometry molecular complexity Continuum description of elasticity and hydrodynamics Interaction with external fields Characteristic defects Phase behavior Introductory remarks How does the field of liquid crystal research fit into into soft matter Historically liquid crystals colloids polymers were studied by chemists 1960 s French physicists around deGennes revived liquid crystal research 1m 10 5 10 8 m 10 2 10 4 m Colloids liquid crystals Thermal motion macro prevents sedimentation yet strongly couple to external fields g h 10 9 10 10 m quantum h e h mgh kT Introductory remarks Recognition that energy length and time scales are similar for colloids polymers liquid crystals emulsions gels membranes Consequently same theoretical description Personal history irreversible aggregation of colloids w G B Benedek in 1979 x ray diffraction of virus with D L D Caspar in 1980 2D colloids and liquid crystals for thesis w R B Meyer 1981 86 Feb 1984 Pieranski Colloidal Crystals Les Houches Chaikin Clark Pieranski Ackerson Maret Klein JP Hansen Charvolin Dubois Violette Pansu http www elsie brandeis edu Granular versus Colloidal TMV 10 000 000 nm 100 nm http www uio no studier emner matnat kjemi KJM3100 v06 undervisningsmateriale kjm3100 liquid crystals f pdf http www uio no studier emner matnat kjemi KJM3100 v06 Chemistry of materials Paul Norby Kjemisk Institutt Norway http fig if usp br school06 palfy 1 pdf http fig if usp br school06 http www



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