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PHYSICAL REVIEW E 76 021302 2007 Spatial force correlations in granular shear flow I Numerical evidence 1 Gregg Lois 1 Ana l Lema tre 2 and Jean M Carlson1 Department of Physics University of California Santa Barbara California 93106 USA 2 Institut Navier LMSGC 2 all e K pler 77420 Champs sur Marne France Received 16 December 2006 revised manuscript received 18 April 2007 published 3 August 2007 We investigate the emergence of correlations in granular shear flow By increasing the density of a simulated granular flow we observe a transition from a dilute regime where interactions are dominated by binary collisions to a dense regime characterized by large force networks and collective motions With increasing density interacting grains tend to form networks of simultaneous contacts due to the dissipative nature of collisions We quantify the size of these networks by measuring two point force correlations and find dramatic changes in the statistics of contact forces as the size of the networks increases DOI 10 1103 PhysRevE 76 021302 PACS number s 81 05 Rm I INTRODUCTION Granular materials exhibit a wide range of fascinating behaviors 1 but predictive theories linking the microscopic grain interactions to macroscopic properties remain a topic of much debate Of particular interest are constitutive relations for granular flow which are important for engineering and geophysical applications 2 3 and challenge the tenets of conventional statistical physics 4 Because granular materials are athermal their dynamics always occur far from equilibrium and a proper formulation of constitutive relations relies on the construction of nonequilibrium statistical theories that must be sensitive to the interactions between grains Interactions in realistic granular materials arise due to grain elasticity and friction but are complicated by various other mechanisms including humidity 5 9 grain shapes 10 12 and fracture processes occurring within the material 13 A great deal of theoretical



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