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Appendix B Unix Introduction If you are using the Unix command line version of tlearn you will need to make several adjustments to the exercises and explanations given in the text which assumes a Macintosh version The reference manual for the line oriented version is included here and we give several examples which illustrate the differences in how the simulator is invoked There is also one important difference in file formats the teach file other files and options are identical across platforms however Configuration Files The four input files which are described in Appendix A are also used in the Unix command line version of tlearn With one exception these files are identical Rather than preparing these files within the simulator itself using tlearn s built in editor you would prepare these with a Unix text editor sch as vi or emacs The one input file which differs from the Mac version is the teach file In the Macintosh version of tlearn this file begins withthe word localist or distributed followed by a line with the number of target patterns followed by successive lines each of which has the target pattern for the corresponding input pattern found in the data file In the Unix version the first two lines are the same as in the Mac version but the actual patterns must be preceded on the 188 same line by a number which tags that specific target pattern Patterns are numbered incrementally starting with pattern 0 zero The following illustrates the differences between for the XOR problem Note that in the Unix version each line now has two numbers the first is the number of the pattern and what follows is the actual target teach files for the XOR problem Unix Version Mac version distributed distributed 4 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 3 1 Invoking the simulator To invoke tlearn on Unix you give it as a shell command followed by a list of the options and file names as required these are documented in the attached Unix on line manual page For example to run a training session on the XOR problem we might do the following assuming is your shell prompt and you have used xor as the fileroot for your files tlearn f xor s 5000 R r 0 3 m 0 9 E 100 If you wish to run this command asynchronously in the background add an ampersand to the end of the command line This command will run the simulator for 5000 training patterns chosen at random with a learning rate of 0 3 and momentum of 0 9 and will save the error every 100 patterns in a file called xor err It will also generate a weights file called xor 5000 wts which can Appendix B Unix 189 then be loaded in to tlearn on subsequent invokations either in order to test learning or to continue with additional learning sweeps tlearn f xor l xor 5000 wts s 4 V for testing verifying notice that there is no R flag so the 4 patterns will be presented in the order in which they occur in the data and teach files or tlearn f xor l xor 5000 wts s 1000 r 0 3 m 0 9 R to continue training for an additional 1000 sweeps This would yield an additional weights file called xor 6000 wts Additional files In the exercises as described in this handbook it is assumed that you have access to various data files for many of the exercises In the Mac version these are located in folders which come with the simulator In the Unix version they have been placed in directories named Chapter1 Chapter2 etc within the following directory elman cogs201f exercises on various machines the tilde denotes the path to user elman s home directory the actual location of this directory varies from machine t machine so the tilde will find the correct location on any machine on which elman has an account 190

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