View Full Document

THE EFFECT OF MUSIC TEMPO ON MOVEMENT RESPONSES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN



View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

23 views

Unformatted text preview:

THE EFFECT OF MUSIC TEMPO ON MOVEMENT RESPONSES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music in The School of Music by Melanie Woods Alexander B M E Louisiana State University 2002 August 2006 Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures iv Abstract v Review of Literature 1 Introduction 1 Motor Development from Birth to Age Three 1 Movement in Early Childhood Music Curricula 5 Related Research in Early Childhood Music 7 Method 14 Results 19 Discussion 25 References 29 Appendix A Exemption from Institutional Oversight 32 Appendix B Consent Form 36 Appendix C Table of Raw Data 38 Vita 39 ii List of Tables 1 Stimulus Music 15 2 Source Table for Analysis of Variance for Tempo and Category of Movement by Age 20 3 Category Means by Age Group 23 4 Category Means by Age Group and Tempo 24 iii List of Figures 1 Motor Observation Form 17 2 Mean Percentages of Overall Movement by Age 20 3 Overall Mean Percentages by Category of Movement 21 4 Mean Percentages of Movement by Age and Tempo 22 5 Category Means by Age Group 23 6 Category Means by Age Group and Tempo 24 iv Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tempo on movement responses of children ages one to three For two weeks 17 children between the ages of 22 and 36 months were videotaped twice per week to observe and measure their movement responses to fast and slow musical stimuli During these sessions the children were videotaped in their classrooms engaged in either free play or in a quiet group activity The videotaped sessions were then analyzed using a Motor Observation Form Once all of the tapes had been viewed and scored overall percentages of movement and no movement were calculated for the fast and slow selections Within the movement category overall percentages for locomotor axial and small motor movements were calculated as well Results indicated no significant difference overall due to the main effect of tempo p 05 A significant difference was found among the age groups in means for overall movement p 0001 Children in the middle age group 26 29 mos exhibited more movement responses than those in the youngest group 22 26 mos and the oldest group 29 36 mos Comparing the three movement categories also indicated a significant difference among the categories p 0001 Small motor movements were exhibited more frequently than axial and locomotor movements by a margin of 4 1 Results suggested a relationship between age and music tempo p 0196 The youngest and middle groups moved more during the slow selections but the oldest group moved the most during the fast selections v Review of Literature Introduction Movement activities are an integral part of any early childhood curriculum These activities provide children with opportunities to manipulate their bodies in space strengthen muscles and improve coordination From a musical standpoint they also help to develop a repertoire of movements that can be used spontaneously when creative movement is appropriate Every stage of a child s development involves acquiring new motor skills and improving existing skills Poole Miller and Church 2005 necessitating many and varied practice environments Therefore early childhood music education curricula should reflect the importance of movement activities during the infant and toddler years Both directed and creative movement should be a well planned and integral part of any music class in early childhood Motor Development from Birth to Age Three During early childhood developmental processes in the skeletal system and the nervous system contribute to the acquisition of motor skills In these years children gain increased control of their movements and begin to develop fine motor skills Larson and Zaichowsky 1995 As children get older their motor skills improve both in general and in relation to music activities Gilbert 1980 Music and movement programs should be aligned with the steadily changing processes of motor skill development During the first year of life infants generally gain control of their bodies and develop motor skills in cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns McDevitt and Ormrod 2004 That is motor development progresses from the head downward and from the inside to the outside One month old infants have enough muscle control to move their heads from side to side and can briefly hold their heads erect Gradually the neck muscles become stronger and by around three months of age they are able to hold their heads upright when held in a sitting position Charlesworth 2004 By about four months an infant can support himself on his forearms and 1 lift the head and chest while lying prone After this milestone has been achieved infants are now strong enough to roll over from chest to back It is also at this stage that infants develop the ability to hold an object and bring it to the mouth By about six months many infants have the strength in their upper bodies to sit unsupported for a brief period of time This increased muscle control also allows an infant to roll from back to stomach At this age infants can also transfer objects from hand to hand and reach for objects nearby Seven month olds have gained enough strength to sit upright unassisted By eight months of age some infants can pull themselves up to standing position and stand briefly with support As muscle development progresses down the body and outward from the center the ability to walk a few steps with support develops This usually happens between nine and ten months of age One important fine motor skill that appears during this phase is the pincer grasp the ability to pick up small objects with the thumb and forefinger As balance and coordination improve eleven month olds are usually able to stand alone They also begin to use their increased fine motor control to feed themselves Infants of this age can generally hold their own bottle and bring pieces of food to their mouths The most important infant milestone walking usually happens around twelve or thirteen months but can appear anytime between ten and 15 months Meece 1997 During the second year of life toddlers practice and improve on motor skills learned during the infant years and acquire new skills as well The beginning of the second year usually involves a toddler learning to walk As stated previously this milestone may be


Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view THE EFFECT OF MUSIC TEMPO ON MOVEMENT RESPONSES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view THE EFFECT OF MUSIC TEMPO ON MOVEMENT RESPONSES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?