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Satellite Oceanography from Concept to Implementation and Launch Yi Chao Yi Chao jpl nasa gov 818 354 8168 1 A brief history about my long science career 1980 85 B S Atmospheric Physics University of Science Technology of China 1985 87 M A Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Princeton University 1987 90 Ph D Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Princeton University 1990 93 Postdoctoral Fellow UCLA Dept of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 1993 present Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology China Scientist 1993 96 Research Scientist 1997 2004 Principal 1980 1985 90 Scientist 2005 present Supervisor of Ocean Atmosphere Interaction group 2005 06 1980 85 Deputy Manager for Earth Remote Sensing Science Section 1990 present 2006 07 2 2006 present Adjunct Professor UCLA Dept of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Joint Institute for Regional Earth JPL is known as sending Rovers to Mars 3 JPL s Mission to Planet Earth 10 missions instruments in operations 600 active engineers scientists Operational ACRIMSAT 1999 Jason 1 2001 QuikSCAT 1998 ASTER 1999 Development MISR 1999 GRACE 2002 AIRS 2002 MLS 2004 TES 2004 CloudSat 2006 Ocean Surface Topography Mission 2008 Carbon Cycle Orbiting Carbon Observatory OCO 2008 Sea Surface Salinity Aquarius 2009 Columbia Supercomputer 10 240 Intel Itanium 2 SGI NUMAflex architecture Linux operating system 440 terabytes online 4 10 petabytes tape OUTLINE History of Satellite Oceanography Overview of Present and Future Satellite Missions Sea surface temperature Sea surface topography or sea level Theory Method how to measure Application Examples how to use the data Aquarius sea surface salinity satellite From concept to implementation and launch Summary and concluding remarks 5 Satellite Oceanography or Satellite Remote Sensing Remote Sensing any technique which measures the ocean remotely without actually sampling it or putting instruments in the water In addition to satellite oceanography remote sensing includes measuring from land based platforms airplanes or by acoustic methods tomography 6 In Situ Observations Early Sea Exploration 1873 1914 Challenger Expedition 226 feet 3 5 years 362 stations 68 890 nautical miles 100 scientists 29 500 pages report 7 Modern In Situ Observations World Ocean Circulation Experiment 1990 2002 8 Why Do We Measure Ocean from Space It is impossible to measure the global ocean from in situ platforms In situ measurements over a large area e g basin to global scale can be expensive and impractical satellite measurements can be simultaneously over large areas or even the global ocean Ship operations are limited to relatively calm conditions however many interesting processes occur in those places that make ship operations impractical e g winter time in the Labrador 9 Sea 1st Weather Meteorological Satellite 1960 10 1st Oceanographic Satellite 1978 Satellite s view of the Gulf Stream 1770 Benjamin Franklin postmaster collected information about ships sailing between New England and England counting dolphin populations located near the fronts discovering and mapping the Gulf Stream 11 Global Ocean Observing System from Space Golden Age of Satellite Oceanography TRMM GPM 2010 AVHRR TMI AMSR GOES QuikSCAT Aquarius 2009 TOPEX Poseidon Jason OSTM 2008 SeaWiFS MODIS 12 Sea Surface Temperature Satellites 13 How to Measure Sea Surface Temperature from Space Physics Blackbody radiation B T 2 hc2 5 exp hc kT 1 Through molecular motion all substances above absolute zero emit radiation e g thermal infrared 14 Blended Satellite and In Situ SST Weekly for Climate Applications 15 New Technology Microwave SST Imager seeing through clouds 16 Ocean Surface Topography Sea Level Satellite 17 How to Measure Sea Level from Space Satellite Altimetry 830 miles 4 miles sec 10 day repeat Accuracy 2 inches 18 IPCC 2001 Application Examples Tracking Global Sea Level Rise 19 Ocean Winds Satellites 20 Tracking Hurricanes with Satellites 21 Sea Surface Salinity Satellite from concept to implementation and launch Planning Needs Community Academy Budget Schedule Formulation Concept Theory Design Test Iterations Implementations Cut metal Build Components Test Integration Test Peer reviews Launch Operation Data return Analysis Science Applications Education 22 I We the oceanographers have a dream 23 Salinity affects water density that drives ocean circulation It is gravity hot air rises heavy water sinks 24 Salinity is a missing piece of the climate puzzle Melting ice changes ocean salinity At high latitudes salinity determines the density and controls the sinking of water Speedup slowdown of the conveyor belt will impact weather climate 25 Earth Water Cycle is Constantly Changing Ocean s Response to Hurricane Rain Hurricane Isabel 2003 accumulation of rainfall as measured by TRMM satellite Over 26 400 trillion tons of freshwater were dumped on the North Atlantic Ocean during this event How to Measure Salinity from Space Find an engineer to find out how Tb eT e Emissivity T Physical Temperature e Relative Dielectric Constant freq S T function freq S T 1 R2 1 1 1 2 normal incidence 27 How do you know theory works First test in the controlled environment JPL Salt Water Pond Measurements L B a nd V e rtica l 20 4 0 ps u at 2 6 C Oct 28 K S Mod el I nput f ile D P A LS Te s t O c t 1 1 0282 029r s m r 1 40 Tant K 1 35 1 30 1 25 1 20 20 25 30 35 40 45 SSS p s u O c t 28 L B an d H oriz on ta l K S Mode l I n put f ile D P A L S Tes t O c t 1 10 2820 29r s m r 82 80 Tant K 78 76 74 72 70 68 20 25 30 35 40 45 SSS p s u Pond Size 3 7 x 4 3 x 0 1 m 28 Aircraft Test the Concept Looking for the big signal Gulf Stream field experiment 1999 29 Test what you fly The same configuration to be used in space Instrument being mounted on top of the back door of the C 130 aircraft which flies at 10 000 feet with the back door open 2000 2003 Monterey Experiments 30 How do we know the accuracy of remotelysensed salinity Ground truth from ship Fishing Boat being rented for a 2 day cruise Taking water samples from a pipe pump 5K day and run through a conductivity sensor 37 Salinity PSS 36 35 S S S R e tr i e v a l 34 Sh ip 33 SSS 32 37 37 1 37 2 37 3 37 4 Project Scientist at sea exciting moment at a fishing break L a ti tu d e d e g 31 Proposal Funding Implementation Aquarius instrument accuracy will be 0 2 psu ppt How much salt should be added to 1 gallon of water to change its salinity by 0 2 psu 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon32 1 6 teaspoon Implementation fast forward

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