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The Republic Books II III and IV



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The Republic Books II III and IV Good and Evil Winter 2007 I Literary Structure of the Republic II The Argument of Books II IV A Glaucon s Challenge 1 Types of Goods 2 Account of Origin of Justice 3 Ring of Gyges B Adeimantus s Instructions C The Analogy D Stages of a City E Classes and Virtues in Kallipolis F Soul Parts and Virtues of the III Questions and Looking Ahead A Glaucon s Challenge 1 Types of Goods Is it good in itself Is it good in its effects Yes No Yes 3rd Kind 1st Kind Most Ex Harmless Noble Pleasures Ex Knowing No 2nd Kind Ex Medical Treatment X What type of good is justice Glaucon Justice is 2nd kind Socrates Justice is 3rd kind 2 The Origins of Justice Step 1 Hermits Hermit A Hermit B unhappy unhappy Both A and B have unsatisfied needs No Justice or injustice Step 2 Contact B will be my helper A will be my helper A tricks B B suffers injustice B tricks A A suffers injustice Step 3 Agreement No tricking allowed Code of Laws Standards of justice and injustice A and B act justly because they are bound by enforceable agreement What happens when A finds the Ring of Gyges 3 Ring of Gyges B Adeimantus s Instructions Praise justice for its effect on the person itself and not for its consequences e g honor reputation rewards in this life or in the afterlife C Socrates Analogy The Explicit Reason Justice in a man small hard to see Justice in a city large easier to see Some other reasons our conceptions of justice are based on social influences within actual cities societies so o build the ideal city and o in that city will be found the correct account of justice discover what an ideal society would be like D Stages of a City Stage 1 No City need Hermits Stage 2 Minimal City Stage 3 Healthy City different natures Barest Necessities Minimal specialization Stage 4 Luxurious City wants Needs are met Greater specialization Suited to work by nature city of pigs WAR fine goods fun more specialties trade more people land Stages of a City continued Stage 5 City State



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