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Motivation Motivation takes many forms but all involve inferred mental processes that select and direct our behavior Drive is used for motivation that is assumed to have a strong innate component and plays an important role in survival or reproduction Hunger thirst sex Motive used more for the mechanism involving learned needs Need for achievement or the desire to play video games Some motivated behaviors eating drinking and sexual behavior have roots in biology and learning Conscious motivation or unconscious motivation Motivated individuals may or may not be aware of the drives or motives underlying their behavior Freud s theory emphasized unconscious motivation Instinct Theory Instincts are specific inborn behavior patterns characteristic of an entire species accounts for regular cycles of animal activity salmon traveling upstream Instincts in human behavior Freud felt life instincts such as sex and death instincts such as aggression or destruction created tension within the organism in the form of psychic energy We are then driven to reduce this tension Road rage for example is a modern example of the death instinct People take their unconscious anger with them behind the wheel of a car Anthropologists today down play instinct believing much behavior is learned not inborn and note that human behavior is rarely rigid inflexible unchanging and characteristic of the specifies A preferred term today is fixed action pattern unlearned behavior that occurs throughout a species and is triggered by identifiable stimuli Drive is the uncomfortable state of tension that moves an organism to meet a biological need A biological need produces a drive The drive then motivates the animal to act to reduce the drive level Once you get to a desirable state you are said to have a condition called homeostasis Homeostasis is the state of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively Drive reduction doesn t explain all motivated behavior Sometimes we seek activities

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