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Human–Automation Interaction Strategies and Models for Life Science Applications



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Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing Vol 19 6 601 621 2009 C 2009 Wiley Periodicals Inc Published online in Wiley InterScience www interscience wiley com DOI 10 1002 hfm 20156 Human Automation Interaction Strategies and Models for Life Science Applications David B Kaber Edward P Fitts Department of Industrial Systems Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh Norbert Stoll and Kerstin Thurow University of Rostock Center for Life Science Automation Rostock Germany Rebecca S Green Sang Hwan Kim and Prithima Mosaly Edward P Fitts Department of Industrial Systems Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to identify current and future approaches to the design of automated systems for life science processes including humans in control loops in applications such as high throughput compound screening and high performance analytical chemistry The identified approaches were classified according to existing theories of human centered automation which provided a basis for projecting human performance implications We provide background on the life sciences domain and established theories of types and levels of automation LOAs in complex human machine systems We describe specific forms of robotic and automated technologies used in life science applications and the general design of high throughput screening HTS and analytical systems to accommodate particular process configurations Example classifications of life science automation LSA schemes are presented by referring to a taxonomy of LOAs from the literature We project the implications of these classified forms of automation on human performance on the basis of prior empirical research in other domains A mathematical model for predicting the cost of LSA from an operator perspective is also defined to support hypotheses for future study Finally we identify the need for additional empirical research on human performance consequences of LSA and remedial C



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