UT Arlington PHYS 3446  Lecture Notes (11 pages)
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 University of Texas at Arlington
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 Phys 3446  Nuclear and Particle Physics
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PHYS 3446 Lecture 18 Wednesday Nov 10 2010 Dr Andrew Brandt Particle Detection Accelerators Particle Physics Wednesday Nov 10 2010 PHYS 3446 Fall 2010 Andrew Brandt 1 Electrostatic Accelerators Cockcroft Walton Cockcroft Walton Accelerator Pass ions through sets of aligned DC electrodes at successively increasing fixed potentials Consists of ion source hydrogen gas and a target with the electrodes arranged in between Acceleration Procedure Electrons are either added or striped off of an atom Ions of charge q then get accelerated through series of electrodes gaining kinetic energy of T qV through every set of electrodes Limited to about 1MeV acceleration due to voltage breakdown and discharge Available commercially and also used as the first step high current injector to 1mA Wednesday Nov 10 2010 PHYS 3446 Fall 2010 Andrew Brandt 2 Electrostatic Accelerators Van de Graaff Energies of particles through DC accelerators are proportional to the applied voltage Robert Van de Graaff developed a clever mechanism to increase HV based on the following known facts The charge on any conductor resides on its outermost surface If a conductor carrying additional charge touches another conductor that surrounds it all of its charges will transfer to the outer conductor increasing the charge on the outer conductor increasing HV Wednesday Nov 10 2010 PHYS 3446 Fall 2010 Andrew Brandt 3 Electrostatic Accelerators Van de Graaff Basically high voltage ionizes gas ions are collected transferred to dome thus increasing HV Sprayer S adds positive charge to the conveyor belt electrons go to P Charge is carried on a conveyor belt over motorized rollers R The charges get transferred to the dome via the collector C The ions in the source then get accelerated to about 12MeV This acceleration normally occurs in high pressure gas that has very high breakdown voltage Wednesday Nov 10 2010 PHYS 3446 Fall 2010 Andrew Brandt 4 Resonance Accelerators Cyclotron Fixed voltage machines have intrinsic
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