Genetics and Biotechnology


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Genetics and Biotechnology Biotechnology A group of many technologies that use living cells or their processes to make products or solve problems Used in basic and applied research Used in developing products for the marketplace Fields Contributing to Biotechnology Medicine Statistics Plant Science Mathematics Food Science Engineering Genetics Computer Science Biochemistry Philosophy Ethics Applications of Biotechnology Cloning Genes Whole organisms Drug production Insulin Disease prevention HIV test Blood type test Pregnancy test Applications of Biotechnology Genetic engineering Gene therapy Gene discovery Human disease genes Alzheimer s Breast cancer Huntington s Disease Plant genes Carotenoid synthesis Oil production Genetics Primer Gene basic unit of heredity Protein product of a gene Genotype genetic makeup of an individual sum of all the genes Phenotype observed traits of an individual due to expression of its genes and interaction with the environment Genes are made of DNA Cell DNA is a ladder like double helix Rungs of the ladder are made of pairs of four bases A C G T Nucleus Sugar phosphate backbone Bases Genes code for proteins The sequence of bases in the DNA of a gene contains information to make a protein The DNA code is triplet Each triplet codes for an amino acid Example the sequence TTG is the code for the amino acid tryptophan Proteins are built from amino acids Transferring the information from DNA to protein is called gene expression gene DNA expression protein Gene expression is regulated The same set of genes is contained in nearly every cell of an organism but Not all genes are expressed in every cell Genes for helping plants absorb minerals from the soil are expressed in the root Genes for plant oil production are expressed primarily in the embryo Genes for milk production in mammals are expressed in the mammary glands Proteins have many functions Transport hemoglobin carries oxygen in blood Structural collagen holds cells together Receptor

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