FLC BIO 455 - CHAPTER 6 • How Cells Read the Genome (64 pages)

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CHAPTER 6 • How Cells Read the Genome



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CHAPTER 6 • How Cells Read the Genome

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Pages:
64
School:
Fort Lewis College
Course:
Bio 455 - Cellular & Molecular Biology

Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 6 How Cells Read the Genome From DNA to Protein Test Your Knowledge 1 What are two major differences between transcription in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 2 RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase enzymes catalyze the same reaction but there are some distinct differences in what is required to make them begin catalysis and end catalysis What are these differences 3 Which is more accurate DNA replication or RNA transcription 4 Explain the proteins and mechanisms involved in the initiation of transcription 5 What determines how many copies of a transcript mRNA are made 6 How are elongation and termination of the transcript regulated Video overview of transcription The Protein Players RNA polymerases transcription factors initiation factors enhancers repressors Prokaryotes Prokaryotic transcription video Prokaryotic Transcription DNA Sequences Important to Transcription Prokaryotes Promoter Pribnow Box also called the 10 element TATAAT 35 element TTGACA Eukaryotes Promoter asymmetrical sequence Basic core promoter TATA box TATAAA A within 50bp upstream of start site found in unicellular eukaryotes Core promoter PLUS Downstream promoters Proximal promoter elements Initiator sequences Regulatory Elements Response Element Response elements are the recognition sites of certain transcription factors Most of them are located within 1 kb from the transcriptional start site Enhancer elements upon binding with transcription factors activators can enhance transcription located either upstream or downstream of the transcriptional initiation site Upstream enhancer elements Downstream enhancers Distal enhancer elements Silencers upon binding with transcription factors repressors can repress transcription Insulators Gene Regulatory Networks control the number and type of transcripts made by a cell video Simple core promoter UAS upstream activator sequence RE regulatory elements sequence DPE downstream promoter elements INR initiator Sequences that can act as promoters TATA is



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