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Demand Response as a Substitute for Electric Power System Infrastructure Investments



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Demand Response as a Substitute for Electric Power System Infrastructure Investments Jason W Black jwblack mit edu Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract This paper investigates the system wide implications of regulatory policies to promote demand response as a substitute for investments in system capacity generation transmission and distribution Investments in demand response technologies such as smart thermostats for thermal energy storage have the potential to improve the efficiency of operations and investments in the electric power system Reducing the magnitude of demand fluctuations will allow the utilization of the generation transmission and distribution systems to be increased and the levels of ancillary voltage and frequency support and reserves reduced An analysis of the long term effects of demand response on electricity pricing and generation investment is modeled This analysis enables a general comparison of the potential for avoided costs in generation transmission and distribution that could be expected from active regulatory support of demand response investments Introduction This paper investigates the potential for demand response to provide a substitute for capacity investments Large scale implementation of demand response is modeled to determine the potential impact on capacity investments The paper focuses on demand response at the residential level which is typically discounted in terms of its potential size and perceived cost effectiveness This paper attempts to present a case for the potential for residential demand response Section 1 of the paper outlines the potential of demand response to reduce peak loads via thermal storage or load shifting Section 2 contains an example illustrating the potential for thermal storage Section 3 briefly explores the issues associated with implementing large scale demand response Section 4 presents the results from simulations to determine the effects of large scale demand response on long term



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