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Chapter 30 Quantum Physics 30 1 Blackbody Radiation and Planck s Hypothesis of Quantum Energy 30 2 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 30 3 The Mass and Momentum of a Photon 30 4 Photon Scattering and Compton Effect 30 5 The de Broglie Hypothesis and WaveParticle Duality 30 6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The wave particle duality nature will be discussed in this chapter We will learn that a wave can exhibit particle like characteristics and a particle can exhibit wave like characteristics We will also see that light and other electromagnetic waves can exhibit some of the same characteristics that are normally associated with particles In particular we will find that electromagnetic waves can be regarded as being composed of discrete packets of energy called photons and that a photon has momentum just as a particle does This chapter concludes with an introduction to one of the most unusual scientific principle the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which places a limit on our knowledge of certain aspect of the physical world Light waves can behave like particles Particles like electrons can behave like waves The picture of a fly at the start of the chapter was taken using an electron microscope In this case the electrons are behaving like waves Section 30 1 Objects that are hot appear different colors depending on how hot they are Dim Red hot Yellow hotter White hot very hot Blackbody A perfect blackbody or simply blackbody is used when referring to an object that absorbs all the electromagnetic waves falling on it Plank s constant At a constant temperature a perfect blackbody absorbs and reemits all the electromagnetic radiation that falls on it Max Plank calculated the emitted radiation intensity per unit wavelength as a function of wavelength In his theory Plank assumed that a blackbody consists of atomic oscillators that can have only quantized energies Plank s quantized energies are given by E nhf where n 0 1 2 3 h is the Plank s constant 6 63 x 10 34 J s

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