ACC BIOL 1308 - Lecture Notes (38 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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Pages:
38
School:
Austin Community College District
Course:
Biol 1308 - Biology Fundamentals
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Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Inquiry into Life Twelfth Edition Sylvia S Mader Chapter 1 Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display 1 1 The Characteristics of Life Biology Science of Living things Bio Life Logos Word of knowledge A laboratory science You live in your own unique Lab and you experiment all the time 1 1 The Characteristics of Life Life exists almost everywhere on the planet Earth 1 1 The Characteristics of Life Life exists almost everywhere on the planet Earth Earth possesses a great variety of diverse life forms 1 1 The Characteristics of Life Life exists almost everywhere on the planet Earth Earth possesses a great variety of diverse life forms All living things have certain characteristics in common Living Things Are organized Acquire materials and energy Reproduce Respond to stimuli Are homeostatic Grow and develop Have the capacity to adapt 1 2 The Classification of Living Things Science of Taxonomy Classification of living organisms based on similarities Not exciting not fun but sometimes we have to Just do It Hierarchical from top to bottom A specific name for an organism like Homo sapiens or E coli represents the very specific type of organism bottom of scheme 1 2 The Classification of Living Things Living organisms are assigned to groups based upon their similarities Systematics is the discipline of indentifying and classifying organisms Domains The highest largest category recent addition 3 domains 1 Archaea ancient bacteria unicellular like bacteria also simple cell structure prokaryote no nucleus but have distinct metabolism chemistry allowing them to exist in extreme environments 2 Bacteria unicellular prokaryote found everywhere 3 Eukarya unicellular to multicellular complex and organized cells with nuclei and organelles mitochondria Domain Archaea Archaea are singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus Prokaryote Archaea can be found in environments that are too hostile for other life forms Domain Bacteria Bacteria are singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus Prokaryote also Bacteria are found almost everywhere on the planet Earth Domain Eukarya The cells of all eukaryotes have a membranebound nucleus Members of the Domain Eukarya are further categorized into one of four Kingdoms know these kingdoms Categories of Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Categories of Classification Domain Dumb Kingdom King Phylum Philip Class Came Order Over Family For Genus Good Species Spaghetti Categories of Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most inclusive Least inclusive Categories of Classification Scientific Names Binomial two name Genus first and first letter capitalized then species not capitalized If written or typed either underline or italicize Genus name species name Homo sapiens italicized Homo troglodytis Your EX underlined Canis familiaris Your puppy except poodles Felis domesticus Your Kitty some strange people have to have Felis leo or Felis tigris Canis latrans Invites your kitty over for lunch Canis lupus guess Know for test 3 domains Archaea Bacteria Eukarya 4 Eukarya Kingdoms Protista Protozoans like Ameba and Paramecium producers and consumers Fungi yeasts molds mushrooms consumers Plants complex producers trees grasses Animals complex consumers 1 3 The Organization of the Biosphere Biosphere The zone of air land and water at the surface of the Earth where living organisms are found Population groups of individuals of a species in a given area Community populations of different species that interact Ecosystem interactions of communities plus the physical habitat Ecosystems Ecosystems are characterized by Chemical cycling carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus etc Energy flow light to chemical energy to heat Ecosystems The Human Species Humans depend on healthy ecosystems for our own survival The human species modifies ecosystems for own purposes Preservation of ecosystems is important to ensure our continued existence Biodiversity Total number of species 30 million different species The variability in their genes Remarkably genetically similar genomics The ecosystems in which they live many ecosystems are adversely affected by humans our recent vacation to St Johns revealed significant change in the coral reef ecosystem enjoy but tread lightly A Coral Reef Ecosystem Ecosystems The Earth may be losing as many as 400 species per day due to human activities 1 4 The Process of Science Biology is the scientific study of life The process of science uses the scientific method Flow Diagram of the Scientific Method know for test Scientific Theory A scientific theory is a concept supported by a broad range of observations experiments and conclusions Examples of Theories in Biology Know for test See pg 11 Cell all life is cellular new life comes from previous cells viruses prions Homeostasis stable internal environment Gene code units of heredity DNA Ecosystem organisms within an environment are interrelated circle of Life hakuna matata Evolution organisms genetically change and pass genes on to offspring best fit to survive The Process of Science A Controlled Study Experiments in controlled studies have two types of groups Control Group for comparison Experimental Group 1 variable manipulated The Process of Science A Controlled Study Variables The experimental variable independent variable is manipulated by the investigator All other factors remain identical The Process of Science A Controlled Study Variables The experimental variable independent variable is manipulated by the investigator All other factors remain identical The response variable dependent variable represents the result of the manipulation of the experimental variable what we are testing for and hope to quantify mathematically An Experiment HYPOTHESIS A pigeon pea winter wheat rotation will cause winter wheat production to increase as well as or better than the use of nitrogen fertilizer Read on your own Boring An Experiment HYPOTHESIS A sustained pigeon pea winter wheat rotation will eventually cause an increase in winter wheat production PREDICTION Wheat biomass following two years of pigeon pea winter wheat rotation will surpass wheat biomass following nitrogen fertilizer treatment An Experiment An Experiment Note data is quantified and expressed graphically An Experiment Conclusion The hypothesis was supported At the end of two years the


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