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ABSTRACT Title of Thesis The Side Stage A Critical Cultural Awareness Forum in Washington D C Degree Candidate Matthew Aaron Peters Master of Architecture 2005 Advisory Committee Professor Guido Francescato Chair Dean Garth Rockcastle FAIA Lecturer Michael Ambrose Throughout history culture and place have been dynamic concepts Major factors contribute to both their evolution and deterioration as recognizable characteristics of a society Since humans began manipulating and adding to the environment some of the notable influences on place and culture have been the inventions of language the printing press electricity the automobile and many others With the recent innovations associated with electronic media namely television and the Internet place and culture have once again been dramatically altered There is never a seamless transition when societies adopt new ways of communicating and interacting rather there are periods that require the re balancing of morals and values Lacking in the public realm and urban fabric of U S cities are places to partake in the discourse and deliberation associated with shifts in communication and interaction rituals due to the ubiquity of electronic media This thesis reclaims a vital part of the urban experience in the form of a public forum while at the same time celebrating the creation critique and consumption of culture associated with electronic media Located in downtown Washington D C this project appropriately situates itself amidst the FBI building the Spy Museum and a number of cultural institutions The political nature and scope of this thesis therefore is dramatically strengthened due to its surrounding context as the capital of the United States of America THE SIDE STAGE A CRITICAL CULTURAL AWARENESS FORUM IN WASHINGTON D C By Matthew Aaron Peters Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture 2005 Advisory Committee Professor Guido Francescato Chair Lecturer Michael Ambrose Dean Garth Rockcastle FAIA Copyright by Matthew Aaron Peters 2005 DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to Merlin the Microsoft Word Assistant for tirelessly helping me put this document together ii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES iv INTRODUCTION 1 Setting the Stage 2 Spectator Sport 10 This Will Enrich That 19 Glossary of Terms and Phrases 23 CHAPTER ONE RAISON D ETRE 25 CHAPTER TWO SITE 29 CHAPTER THREE GOALS AND ISSUES 53 Design Goals 54 Special Design Issues Challenges 56 CHAPTER FOUR PRECEDENTS 57 Paris Opera House 58 BBC Radio Center 62 Tokyo International Forum 67 Sendai Mediatheque 71 CHAPTER FIVE INTERVENTIONS 84 Networked Urbanism 85 Congestion Charging 87 The 8th Street Pedestrian Mall 96 CHAPTER SIX PROGRAM 102 Institutions 103 Higher Education 105 The Public Realm 107 Square Footages 108 CHAPTER SEVEN PRE SCHEMATIC ALTERNATIVES 114 CHAPTER EIGHT CONLUSIONS AND SYNTHESIS 117 NOTES 136 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Diagram of Front Stages Interactive and Reciprocal Relationship 2 Figure 2 Diagram of Front Stages and Back Stages where the Back Stages are hidden from the opposing Front Stage 3 Figure 3 Front Stages Back Stages and Side Stage where the Side Stage has a View of the Transition between the Performer s Front and Back Stages 5 Figure 4 The home viewer being controlled through surveillance 11 Figure 5 The home viewer being controlled through entertainment 11 Figure 6 A not too shocking image 13 Figure 7 The President of the U S Shifting Stages 16 Figure 8 Laugier s Primitive Hut with Digital Layer 21 Figure 9 Engraved plan of the Federal City by Andrew Ellicott based on the drawings of L Enfant 1792 30 Figure 10 Figure Ground of Central Washington D C including the National Mall 31 Figure 11 Ordering Principles in the D C Plan 32 Figure 12 Open Green Space in and around Downtown 33 Figure 13 Figure Ground of Downtown 34 Figure 14 The Downtown Entertainment and Retail Core 35 Figure 15 The Downtown Traditional Retail Core 35 Figure 16 The Downtown Theater District 36 Figure 17 Washington D C Metro System 37 Figure 18 Metro Station Locations in Downtown 38 Figure 19 The National Portrait Gallery South Facade 38 Figure 20 The FBI Building Northeast Corner 39 Figure 21 MCI Center Southwest Corner 40 Figure 22 Looking at National Archives from Navy Memorial 41 Figure 23 Old U S Tariff Commission Building 42 Figure 24 The Spy Museum North Fa ade 43 Figure 25 Local Axial Order and Uses 44 Figure 26 Street Orientations and Traffic Directions 45 Figure 27 Aerial Photo of Central Washington D C 46 Figure 28 On Street Parking Locations around Site 47 Figure 29 Section through the site East West showing building heights and street widths 48 Figure 30 Zoning within the Downtown 49 Figure 31 Photo of South Elevation of the Spy Museum 50 Figure 32 Photo of Elevation across the street south 50 Figure 33 North West corner of the Spy Museum 51 Figure 34 Photo Looking North from the Navy Memorial 52 Figure 35 Aerial Photo of Opera House in Context 58 Figure 36 Plans of Opera House showing major nodes of interaction 59 Figure 37 Perspective Photo of Main Stair 60 Figure 38 Section through Main Stair showing focus of attention on Societal Performance 61 iv Figure 39 BBC Radio Center in Context on Regent Street 62 Figure 40 Model of BBC Radio Center showing relationship with All Souls Church 63 Figure 41 Section through BBC Radio Center showing Public Access 64 Figure 42 Plan of Typical Office Floor with Diagram showing offices in black and open space and circulation areas in white 65 Figure 43 Model Photo of Tokyo International Forum 67 Figure 44 Section through Auditoriums showing Forum Space 68 Figure 45 Section through Auditorium showing relationships between levels 69 Figure 46 Diagram of Spatial Relationships between Auditoriums and Frame 69 Figure 47 Model Photo of Elevation 70 Figure 48 Exterior Photos of Mediateque Day and Night 71 Figure 49 Mediatheque Ground Floor Plan with Uses 72 Figure 50 Mediatheque First Floor Plan and Uses 73 Figure 51 Mediatheque Third Floor Plan and Uses 74 Figure 52 Mediatheque Seventh Floor Plan and Uses 74 Figure 53 Sections showing vertical connections 75 Figure 54 Photo of Tubular Column 76 Figure 55 Photo of Open Square with Screen creating space 76 Figure 56 Mediateque Massing Study on Washington D C Site 78 Figure 57 Mediateque Massing Study on Washington D C Site 78 Figure 58

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