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From the Center s Clearinghouse An introductory packet on Least Intervention Needed Toward Appropriate Inclusion of Students with Special Needs The Center for Mental Health in Schools is co directed by Howard Adelman and Linda Taylor and operates under the auspice of the School Mental Health Project Dept of Psychology UCLA Box 951563 Los Angeles CA 90095 1563 310 825 3634 Fax 310 206 5895 E mail smhp ucla edu Please reference this document as follows Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA 2007 An introductory packet on least intervention needed toward appropriate inclusion of students with special needs Los Angeles CA Author Revised October 2007 Copies may be downloaded from http smhp psych ucla edu dbsimple2 asp primary 2311 number 9999 If needed copies may be ordered from Center for Mental Health in Schools UCLA Dept of Psychology P O Box 951563 Los Angeles CA 90095 1563 The Center encourages widespread sharing of all resources Least Intervention Needed Toward Appropriate Inclusion of Students with Special Needs Of course there are limits to what different people are capable of achieving but we should make no uninformed assumptions about what these limits are Stevenson Stigler 1992 Page I II What is Inclusion A Toward Appropriate Inclusion of Students with Special Needs B One School District s Approach to Least Intervention Needed Information for Parents on Least Restrictive Environment C Inclusion 2 3 4 A Quick Overview of Some Basic Resources Selected References Agencies Organizations and Internet Sites Some Names from Our Consultation Cadre Resource Aid Parental Consent and Due Process Quick Find 6 13 21 25 26 III Some Model Programs for Serving All Children Well 32 IV Modules for Staff Development 35 V An Example of an ERIC Digest Including Students with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms 37 VI Inclusion Some Issues 39 A B C D E VII Using Existing Supports in Inclusive Classrooms Schools A Natural Support Categories and Strategies B Types of Interveners C Worksheet for Pupil Personnel Staff VIII Beyond Placement in the Least Restrictive Environment 46 47 48 51 I What is Inclusion Inclusion is the practice of educating children who have disabilities in classes together with their nondisabled peers Although the term inclusion does not appear in any federal law it has unified efforts to broaden educational opportunities under three different federal laws Some efforts have used the language of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act which requires that children be educated in the least restrictive environment with whatever supplementary aids and services are needed so that the child can benefit Others have used the language of regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act which gives a preference to the school and classroom the child would otherwise attend if not disabled The Americans with Disabilities Act has similar provisions Recent federal court decisions in New Jersey and California have interpreted the law to mean that even children with severe disabilities must in most circumstances be included in their local school classrooms with nondisabled peers whether or not one agrees with those who advocate inclusion the practice is spreading so rapidly that practical need usually compels educators to inform themselves about what inclusion is and how it is done Some programs are no more than nominally inclusive For example 1 cluster site programming where all the children with disabilities from a wide geographic area are brought to a single school and included in that school s classes 2 traditional mainstream programming where children with disabilities can attend classes with their nondisabled peers only if they can keep up with their classmates level of performance and 3 dumping where children with disabilities are simply placed in general education classrooms without supportive services A truly inclusive program is one that ensures each special education student is provided with specially designed instruction to meet his or her unique needs However unlike traditional special education models instead of sending the children to a specialized site the children remain in the schools and classes they would otherwise attend and the services are brought to them From J R Rogers 1994 Introduction to Inclusion Moving Beyond Our Fears One of the Hot Topics Series published bv Phi Delta Kappa s Center for Evaluation Development and Research 1 A Least Intervention Needed Toward Appropriate Inclusion of Students with Special Needs Society defines what is exceptional or deviant and appropriate treatments are designed quite as much to protect society as they are to help the child To take care of them can and should be read with two meanings to give children help and to exclude them from the community Nicholas Hobbs 1975 Appropriate inclusion of students with special needs begins with ensuring that only those who cannot be helped effectively in the mainstream are referred to special placements When data indicate that a person is not making appropriate progress whatever the cause the tendency is to consider use of special services and placements Such a decision often includes the profound move of transferring an individual out of a mainstream setting into a special environment The decision usually is based on whether the person s problem is viewed as mild to moderate or severe and pervasive and whether it is related to learning behavior emotional or physical functioning Persons with severe and pervasive problems often are placed in specialized treatment settings such as remedial classrooms and institutions Mild to moderate problems are supposed to be dealt with in mainstream settings either through modifying the setting somewhat or adding extra ancillary services or both Ancillary assistance can involve a variety of interventions 1 extra instruction such as tutoring 2 enrichment opportunities such as pursuit of hobbies arts and crafts and recreation 3 psychologically oriented treatments such as individual and family therapy and 4 biologically oriented treatments such as medication Placement decisions focus first on major intervention needs then on which if any extra assistance seems indicated In many cases decisions about secondary ancillary activity are best made after primary interventions are given an adequate trial and found insufficient The material included has been abstracted from H S Adelman L Taylor 1993 Learning Problems and Learning

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