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asgn3d INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING Click HERE to review definitions of term s from Pavlovian conditioning Classical Pavlovian conditioning involves learning an association between two stimuli The person or anim al learns that when one stim ulus the conditioned Stimulus CS occurs a second stim ulus the unconditioned stimulus US will follow regardless of what s he does The learned response to the Conditioned Stim ulus is the conditioned response CR That conditioned response appears to prepare the subject for the effect of the Unconditioned Stim ulus and often resem bles the unconditioned response UR which the Unconditioned Stim ulus elicits triggers Instrumental conditioning involves learning the association between a response and its B F Skinner was the most forceful and influential advocate of instrumental conditioning and its importance in everyday behavior He and his associates and followers applied the concepts of instrumental conditioning to problems ranging from animal training to education treatment of psychological problems behavioral management of mentally retarded people and industrial management Skinner used the term operant conditioning which is slightly different from instrumental conditioning but the difference can be ignored Link to tutorials on behavior analysis developed by Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies consequences what happens im m ediately after that response E L Thorndike studied this process often called trial and error learning at the end of the 19th century As B F Skinner later pointed out trial and success learning is a m ore accurate description Based on his studies of chicks and cats Thorndike proposed the law of Effect This law states that the strength of a response increases when satisfier promptly follows it A satisfier is som ething an anim al or person consistently approaches and does nothing to avoid Response strength can be operationally defined in several ways rate of a response num ber of responses per m inute speed or latency of a response the probability that the response happens etc Figure 1 3d Instrumental conditioning top requires a response before a reinforcer is delivered Pecking at the window is followed by food delivery Pavlovian conditioning bottom presents two stimuli the pattern on the window Conditioned Stimulus which predicts the food unconditioned stimulus Instrumental conditioning requires that a response must occur before it can be conditioned For exam ple to train a rat to press a level the rat m ust em it m ake a level press before a reinforcer can be delivered to strengthen that response Because of this instrum ental conditioning looks like what people call voluntary behavior though conscious control is not necessarily involved People can be conditioned to m ake responses without being aware of the relation between their responses and the consequence that follows it For example a hungry pigeon must peck at the target before it gets food to reinforce make stronger that pecking response Although the pigeon s behavior looks very much like that produced by autoshaping described in Exercises asgn3a and c it is based on a different procedure Figure 1 3d shows the sequence of events on the first reinforced of instrumental conditioning and Pavlovian conditioning by autoshaping Q1 Mark each exam ple with P of it is an exam ple of Pavlovian conditioning or with I if it is an exam ple of instrum ental conditioning Exam ples assum e m ale gender fem ales can switch to fem ale gender P I A wearing an aftershave scent that your girlfriend says she likes P I B starting to salivate m ore when you see your tasty dinner com ing P I C flinching to lightning before you hear the loud thunder P I D picking fruit to earn 1 for every 10 boxes picked P I E your girlfriend s cologne scent elicits triggers a warm em otion in her absence P I F putting on your baseball cap backwards to gain your friends acceptance asgn1e p 2 In hum ans classical conditioning is easiest to show in em otion For exam ple after one or two trips to the dentist seeing and sitting in the dentist chair are associated the dental drill scraper and probe on your teeth and gums These unpleasant stim uli reliably trigger body reactions characteristic of pain like flinching Seeing and sitting in the dentist chair reliably predicts that the drill the scraper and the pick will follow Your body quickly learns to m ake sim ilar reactions to the dental chair as it does to the painful sensory stim uli that the dental tools produce Match the parts of the dentist chair exam ple with the term s below 1 unconditioned response UR 2 unconditioned stim ulus US 3 conditioned stim ulus CS 4 conditioned response CR Q2A flinching and other body reaction to dental drill scraper etc on the teeth Q2B the dental drill scraper etc on your teeth Q2C seeing the dental chair and dental tools Q2D body reactions triggered by seeing the dental chair and dental tools Instrumental conditioning is learning about the consequences of your actions The consequence of an action is often described as contingent on depending on doing that action The upper part of Figure 1 3d see above illustrates instrum ental conditioning because getting food is contingent upon pecking the key The food appears only after the bird m akes the appropriate response The lower part of Figure 1 3d illustrates Pavlovian conditioning presenting the food is not contingent on anything the pigeon does It always follows the predictive signal regardless of what the bird does Q3 You have to do well enough in your courses to earn a C average 2 0 on a 4 point scale or better in order to com e back to school next sem ester The contingent consequence in this exam ple is A passing all your courses with at least a C average B com ing back to school next sem ester C getting a GPA below 2 0 D em itting a response that is the appropriate behavior E the course you take this sem ester M emorize the follow ing definitions you will need them later W hen a response is followed promptly and consistently by some consequence the strength or probability of that response changes depending on what kind of consequence it is Change in strength or probability of a response is m easured by com paring it with a baseline called operant level Skinner defined operant level as the rate or strength of a behavior when it can be done without restriction and any consequence Three kinds of consequences can follow a response consequences that have no effect on the preceding

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