MSU CJ 335 - Lecture8-H (4 pages)

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Lecture8-H



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Lecture8-H

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Pages:
4
School:
Michigan State University
Course:
Cj 335 - Policing
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Outline for the lecture Police Process Lecture 8 Dae Hoon Kwak Michigan State University CJ 335 Summer 2006 6 1 2006 Police Patrol II The Backbone of Policing CJ 335 Summer 2006 Identify major research studies on the effectiveness of patrol Explain how current philosophies of patrol differ traditional approaches Introduce some of alternative ways to improve the traditional patrol 6 1 2006 1 The Call Service Workload 2 Aspects of Patrol Work The Volume of Calls Response Time RT Quick RT will increase the probability of an arrest and public satisfaction but little effect on clearance rate Workload produced by 911 systems varies widely CJ 335 Summer 2006 Types of Calls Handling anything everything 29 1 crime related calls just 3 for violent crimes not crimefighters but peacekeepers or problem solvers Crime Discovery Discovery time Most CFS order maintenance conflict management service especially family problems C F S Reporting time Dispatch Processing time 2m 50sec Travel time 5m 34sec Many situations require the exercise of discretion Hotspots Minneapolis Study 5 people 64 CFS 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 Aspects of Patrol Work cont 6 1 2006 3 CJ 335 Summer 2006 4 Aspects of Patrol Work cont Response Time cont Officer Use of Patrol Time Traditional negative stereotypes Donut shop 75 of all reported crimes are discovery or cold crimes only 25 involve crimes Committed time officer occupied with handling calls Discovery delay time 1 hour for property 30 min for personal crimes of violence Uncommitted time patrol non police related activity stationary police related activities residual time Victims took an average of 4 to 5 5 min to call the police POPN study a P O s beat spend encounters with citizens 20 patrol 20 traveling 15 b CPO spend encounters with citizens 14 patrol 9 Citizen satisfaction with police service is affected by RT e g more than 15 min less satisfied Arrest Major impact on use of time 1 2 hours processing 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 5 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 6 1 Aspects of Patrol Work cont The Effectiveness of Patrol Evasion of Duty Since LPD the basic assumption is adding more P O s on Officers can create free time by delaying a call Does Visible Police Presence deter crime patrols will increase the deterrent effect High Speed Pursuit HSP Research in 1950s and 1960s did not meet contemporary standards of research HSP is a situation where a P O attempt to stop a vehicle and a suspect knowingly flees at a high rate of speed a Operation 25 NY did not control for displacement b NYC experiment Poses serious risk to P O suspects other drivers bystanders e g 33 resulted in accidents 17 for injuries Dark figures short duration don t report when violated dept s policy 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont 6 1 2006 7 CJ 335 Summer 2006 8 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment 1972 73 The first experiment testing the effectiveness of patrol that met minimum standards of scientific research The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment cont Research design cont c Three level of patrol reactive proactive and control Research design a 15 beats in S patrol division out of 24 9 eliminated b 15 beats matched crime data of CFS ethnic composition median income etc R No preventive patrol C Normal patrol P 2 3 times more patrol 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont 6 1 2006 9 CJ 335 Summer 2006 10 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment cont Research design cont The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment cont Findings cont d Measurement the impact of the different levels of patrol on criminal activity community perceptions and a Challenged traditional assumptions about patrol b Crime and FOC did not increase in reactive beat attitudes police behavior and PD practices Reasons for the findings and limitations e Data UCR NCVS other source e g RT PO s use of time officer attitudes a Did not control traveling among beats people did not seem to notice the different level of patrol i e residual deterrence or phantom effect Findings No impact on crime citizen feelings of safety change in behavior or lifestyle and attitudes toward the police 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 11 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 12 2 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont The Effectiveness of Patrol cont The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment cont Reasons for the findings and limitations cont The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment 1978 79 Tested the effect of foot patrol on crime and public perceptions b Patrol is spread so thin doubling is not have any additional impact Research Design similar to KC study c Crimes not to be deterred by patrol d Tested only the level of police patrol rather than actual police activity Since then there have been many critics of KC study but it Retain Drop Add remains a foremost study to police patrol 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont 6 1 2006 13 The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment 1978 79 Q Does Visible Police Presence adding more P O s on patrol deter crime Findings A Based on two empirical researches it can be concluded that simply adding more police officers on patrol will not CJ 335 Summer 2006 deter crime 6 1 2006 15 Improving Traditional Patrol Patrol deterred crime quick response is important maximize patrol coverage e g FP VP one officer unit 16 Telephone Reporting Units TRUs Handle calls when citizen reports crime but no immediate police response is necessary Different Response to Calls Calls classified according to seriousness of the call a Immediate response by S O b Delayed c No police response 311 Non Emergency Numbers 3 PD Baltimore PD introduced in 1996 The average time it took to answer 911 calls reduced by 50 Calls from 911 that are non emergency transferred to 311 or vice versa Increased both citizen and officers satisfaction and overall quality of CFS system CJ 335 Summer 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 Improving Traditional Patrol cont Traditional Approaches 6 1 2006 14 Conclusions Measurement the effect of different levels of FP on crime arrest rate and community attitude using survey 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 The Effectiveness of Patrol cont Additional FP had no effect on the crime rate but FP reduce citizens fear of crime more positive attitudes toward the police Continued Eliminated Instituted 17 6 1 2006 CJ 335 Summer 2006 18 3 Improving Traditional Patrol cont Non English 911 Call Service Creates a major problem for the police


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