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CHAPTER 7 SKELTON FILL IN NOTES 2 Axial skeleton skull vertebral column thoracic cage 3 Fig 7 1 pg 199 4 I Skull two parts A Cranium Encloses and protects the brain 8 bones B Facial bones 14 bones Cranium A Frontal Forehead brain Anterior part of the cranium forming the superior eye orbits then horizontal to form roof of eye and the floor of anterior cranial cavity 5 Figs 7 4 A Pg 202 6 Figs 7 4 b 5 Pg 202 7 Fig 7 5a Pgs 203 8 Fig 7 5b Pg 203 9 B Parietal bones 2 bilateral posterior lateral 2 3 of cranium brain fig 7 5 a C Occipital brain posterior inferior part of the cranium D Temporal 2 bilateral inferior to parietals 1 houses external auditory meatus ear canal middle internal ear 2 Zygomaticus posterior part of zygomatic arch 10 Figures 7 5a pg 203 1 11 fig 7 8 pg 207 12 Sutures major immoveable serrated joints between previous cranial bones we ll get back to remaining 2 skull bones latter Sagital sutures lies in the mid sagittal plane separates the left right parietals 13 Fig 7 4b pg 202 14 B Coronal suture lies in coronal plane articulating both anterior parietals with the frontal bone C Lamboid suture posterior skull articulating both posterior parietals with the occipital bone D Squamous suture articulates inferior border of parietals w superior border of the temporal bones Cranial bones sutures prenatal newborns Cranial bones cartilagenous fontanelles sutures flexible child birth 15 fig 7 5 a pg 203 16 Last two cranial bones cranial floor E Sphenoid middle part of cranial floor 1 Weird bat shhaped bone that articulates w all the other 7 cranial bones 2 Superior surface contains sella turcica turk s saddle hold the pituitary gland hypophysis 3 Forms part of the cranial floor 4 Part of external skull anterior to temporal bone greater wing 17 Fig 7 6a pg 205 2 18 Fig 7 7a pg 206 19 F Ethmoid bone another bizarre shaped bone 1 Location midline in anterior part of cranial floor medial to orbits 2 Includes the cribiform plate a part of the roof of the nasal cavity b foramina holes that carry olfactory nerves smell to brain 20 Figure 7 4a page 202 21 Facial Bones A Mandible lower jaw bone 1 Coronoid l crown shaped process a insertion of temporalis muscle closes the jaw 2 mandibular condyle articulates with mandibular fossa of temporal bone forms tempromandibular joint TMJ a TMJ syndrome symptoms from joint dysfunction 22 fig 7 11 a pg 210 23 fig 7 5a pg 203 24 B Maxillary bones upper jaw 2 fused medially 1 Keystone articulate w all other facial bones 2 part of floor of orbit eye 3 most of hed palate roof of mouth 4 floor of nasal cavity C Zygomatic bone Cheek bone zygoma L bar lateral wall floor of orbit eye socket 1 Forms zygomatic arch w zygomatic process of temporal bone 3 25 Fig 7 5a pg 203 26 Fig 7 6a b pg 205 26 Fig 7 6a b pg 205 27 28 D Nasal bones Thin bones fused medially forming the bridge of the nose a Everything anterior to bridge is hyaline cartilage E Siuses 1 Hollow cavaties lined withmucous membranes can become inflamed allergies 2 Connect with nasal cavities 3 found in frontal sphenoid ethmoid and maxillary bones 29 Figures 7 15 a page 216 30 Figure 7 15 b page 216 31 Hyoid bone A Anchor for the tongue B Horseshoe shaped C Anchored to styloid proccesses by thin ligaments 32 Figure 7 12 pg 211 33 Vertebral Column Spinal Column Spine 24 Vertebrae sacrum coccyx 4 Three regions 1 Cervical 7 vertebrae C1 C7 2 Thoracic 12 vertebrae T1 T12 3 Lumbar 5 Vertebrae L1 L5 4 Sacrum 5 fused segments segments 5 Coccyx 4 fussed segments 3 Spinal Curves 60 degrees 1 Cervical forward curve called a lordosis 2 Thoracic curve reverse curve kyphosis 3 Lumbar curve forward curve lordosis 34 Fig 7 16 page 217 35 Fetus and newborns have one thoracic kyphotic curve 2 other curves develop as child develops and becomes active Perfect Posture biomechanical Digress Vertebrae Structure 2 parts I Body large round thick bone disc a Weight is transmitted from body to body c Separated by intervertebral disc disc 36 Fig 7 17 a pg 218 37 Fig 7 17 b pg 218 38 Fig 7 18 page 219 39 II Posterior neural arch posterior to body A Pedicles project posteriorly from the body forming the lamina which meet medially forming the vertebral foramina 5 B Transverse foramina extend laterally for muscle attachment w leverage mechanical advantage C Spinous process extends posteriorly for muscle attachment w leverage 1 Bumps down ones back 40 41 D Inferior notch notch for spinal nerve forming the intervertebral foramen E articular processes 1 Have a smooth articular face called facet 2 Each vertebra has a superior articular process and an inferior articular process 3 The inferior facet of a vertebrae will articulate meet with the superior facet of the vertebra just inferior to it 4 Facet joint Where the facets articulate meet 42 Fig 7 20b pg 221 43 lII Vertebral Regions A Cervical vertebrae 1 C1 Atlas holds up the skull head Superior facets articulate w occipital condyles of skull a No body or spinous process Have anterior posterior processes 2 C2 Axis a Has odontoid dens a post that acts as an axle axis for atlas to rotate on b Majority of cervical rotation between C1 C2 6 44 Fig 7 19 a pg 220 45 Fig 7 19 a b pg 220 46 Fig 7 19c pg 220 47 3 All cervical vertebrae C1 C7 have transverse foramina for vertebral arteries 4 Cervical vertebral bodies are small B Thoracic Vertebrae T1 T12 1 Start out looking like cervicals T1 and become more like lumbars at T12 2 Facets lie in coronal plane lateral flexion only 3 Have extra superior demifacets inferior costal rib facets that articulate with ribs 48 Table 7 2 pg 222 49 Table 2a pg 222 50 C Lumbar Vertebrae L1 L5 1 Largest strongest vertebrae 2 Facets lie in sagital plane forwards backwards movement only D Sacrum S1 S5 Solid mass 1 Functional joint between L5 and S1 E Coccyx tail bone 1 segments 2 Attached to sacrum by ligaments and Can be sprained coccydinia 3 Vestigial tail 1 of 100 000 7 51 Intervertebral disc cushion like pad allowing motion between adjacent vertebrae A Anulus fibrosa Fibrocartilage 3 layers each w fibers running 3 different ways B Nucleus pulposa gel like ball in center of disc 1 Ball acts as cushion and vertebrae can rock in all directions 2 If Anulus tears gel starts oozing into tear and can form a bulge a bulge can press against nerve pain numbness paralysis b prolapse herniation or slipped disc diagram 52 Fig 7 17 c pg 218 53 Thoracic Cage Sternum ribs A Sternum breastbone 3 parts 1 Manubrium Badge l a medial articulation w clavicle 2 Body main

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