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Perception Interventions Chapter 7 Perception Interventions Selective Awareness Humor Adopting Type B Behavior Improving Self Esteem Developing an Internal Locus of Control Anxiety Management Establishing Hardiness Type A vs Type B Behavior Type B behavior is the opposite of Type A behavior Take scale on p 122 Type A behavior is associated with coronary heart disease Characteristics of Type A behavior include Excessive external competitive drive aggressiveness impatient sense of time urgency free floating well rationalized hostility Verbal non verbal hurrying 1 Type B Behavior People are less prone to cardiovascular disease They exhibit no free floating hostility exhibit no sense of time urgency are not externally competitive Assertive but not aggressive Collaborative not autocratic Behavior Modification Behavior modification can help Type A people become more Type B New behaviors can be learned P 124 Define Type A behaviors that need changing Establish weekly realistic attainable goals define rewards for accomplishing Type B behaviors ignore or establish punishments for unwanted Type A behavior Hardiness Kobasa s orginal research Downsizing in Chicago Three Characteristics Commitment Control Challenge Follow up research What is most important 2 Stress Hardiness and Illness 1400 Illness Index 1200 1000 800 Low Hardiness High Hardiness 600 400 200 0 High Stress Low Stress Data from Kobasa et al 1982 Stress Coherence and llness 1400 Illness Score 1200 1000 800 Low SOC High SOC 600 400 200 0 Low Hassles High Hassles Data from Bishop 1993 Locus of Control Do you believe that life is something that happens to you or vice versa p 128 scale internal locus of control external locus of control With acceptance of control comes responsibility Understanding successes and failures 3 Choosing Positive Control Seeing the positive selective awareness Finding novel experiences breaking out of routines of life Remembering the positive gratitude Selective Awareness There is good and bad in any situation Focus on the positive deemphasize the negative Take time to stop and smell the roses enjoy the process of achieving goals experience life adopt less routine behaviors Put life situations in proper perspective Seeking New Paths Choosing or Stumbling upon new paths Literally Life can be a rich experience if you put yourself in a position that richness is more likely to be found What prevents us from being aware of life as we live it is often the routine of daily experience 4 An Attitude of Gratitude Learn to be grateful for what you have A nightly task for improving appreciation of life 5 good things can you think of 10 Humor and Stress Humor comes in many different forms Initial physiologic changes include increased muscular activity increased respiratory activity increased heart rate increased production of catecholamines and endorphins A relaxation state follows the initial physiologic changes Laughter and Immune Functioning Bennett MP Zeller JM Rosenberg L McCann J Altern Ther Health Med 2003 Mar Apr 9 2 38 45 5 Humor and Stress Experience Humor and Stress Psychological effects include relief of anxiety stress and tension an outlet for hostility and anger an escape from reality a means of tolerating crises chronic illnesses and disabilities Inappropriately used humor can lead to distress BACK 6 Self Esteem Self esteem can affect our ability to respond assertively establish intimate relationships maintain a social support network resolve conflicts find success Poor self esteem is associated with drug abuse irresponsible sexual behavior other unhealthy activities Improving Self Esteem Identify parts of yourself about which you want to feel better Accept those parts of yourself that cannot be changed Focus your efforts on changing what can be changed Determine what you can do to improve this part of yourself Do it now and stick with it Anxiety Management State vs trait anxiety Coping techniques for state anxiety Environmental planning Relabeling Self talk Thought stopping Systematic desensitization fear hierarchy progressive relaxation Ellis ABCDE technique 7 Anxiety Management ABCDE What is the activating agent Stressor What belief system is affected rationality Consequences of unchecked action Dispute irrational beliefs We must be loved and respected by everyone We must be competent adequate and achieving at all times If things don t go as I want it s a catastrophe Effect of challenged changed consequences 8

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